Gender and the Cultures of U.S. Imperialism

Harvard University

Studies in Women, Gender, and Sexuality (WGS) 1203

Spring 2005

Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10-11:30

Course website: <>


Dr. Robin Bernstein


Office: Barker Center, Warren House 112

Phone: 617.495.9634

Office Hours immediately follow class. To schedule an appointment outside regular Office Hours, please contact Stephanie Gauchel (

Teaching Fellow: Lilith Mahmud



Many thinkers of diverse political affiliations believe that George W. Bush’s presidency will prove pivotal to US history—particularly with regard to US foreign policy.  The Bush Doctrine calls for US intervention, including preemptive war and regime change, as a means by which to re-draw the political map of the world and the Middle East in particular.  The Doctrine, and its expression through current US involvement in Iraq, invites deep and careful thought about the relationship between the United States and empire.


This course provides students with specific analytical tools by which to engage in that intellectual project.  We will use the methods of Cultural Studies to consider US imperialism not only as a military venture, but as a cultural project.  Cultural Studies is (to offer a very condensed definition) an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the creation and flow of power and resistance, especially through ordinary people’s uses of mass-marketed products.  The field of Cultural Studies enables us to consider imperialism not as a narrowly defined governmental venture, but rather as a sprawling set of practices in which many, if not all, people participate.  These practices include performances on stage and screen, tourism, holiday rituals, and the writing and reading of literature (both “high” and “popular”).  One may look for imperialist practices not only in military units, but in World Fairs, museums, and schools.


Cultural Studies opens unique avenues by which to consider issues of gender.  Analyses of imperialism based in military history or international relations often focus on men as colonizers and conquerors, women as victims.  In contrast, this course’s focus on culture opens the following questions:


1.       How has gender affected the experiences of colonized people (and how has the experience of being colonized affected those people’s genders)?

2.       How has gender affected the experiences of colonizers (and how has the experience of colonizing affected those people’s genders)?

3.       How has gender functioned as part of the ideologies and strategies of American imperialism?

4.       How has gender functioned as part of the ideologies and strategies of anti-imperialist activism and resistance?


These four questions constitute the heart of this course.  We examine gender, culture, and US imperialism over a long stretch of time, and across diverse geographical locations including the North American continent, Hawaii, the Philippines, and Liberia.  Our ultimate goal, however, is not to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the history of US imperialism.  Rather, our goal is to master specific analytical tools by which to think deeply about gender, culture, and US imperialism—in the current historical moment or any other period.


Required texts (available, unless otherwise noted, at the Harvard Bookstore):


Jane Addams, Peace and Bread in Time of War

W.E.B. Du Bois, Darkwater

Liliu'okalani, Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen (online at


Herman Melville, Typee

Sourcebook (“SB”)  The Sourcebook is on 3-hour reserve at Lamont Library.

Web resources as indicated in syllabus


Recommended texts:


Weekly lectures in this course will provide historical context to assist your reading of literary texts.  The lectures do not, however, aim to create a comprehensive survey of American imperialist ventures over the past three hundred years.  If you would like to encounter such a survey, I recommend The United States and Imperialism, by Frank Ninkovich.  Sidney Lens’ classic The Forging of the American Empire from the Revolution to Vietnam: A History of U.S. Imperialism provides another exceptionally useful overview.  Both these books are available at the Harvard Bookstore.


Extra credit opportunity: Several weeks pair the required reading with specific recommended texts.  You may read one of these recommended texts, write a response paper of two full pages, and bring your knowledge of the text to the class discussion in a meaningful way in the designated week.  A student who takes this option will, if his or her final average hovers between two grades, receive the higher grade.  In other words, if your final average is 3.16 and you have not completed an extra credit assignment, you may receive, at the discretion of the professor, either a B or a B+ for the course.  If, however, you completed an extra credit assignment, you will receive the B+.  If your average does not fall between grades, the extra credit will not affect your final grade.  For example, if your average is 3.03, you will receive a B regardless of whether you completed extra credit.  The extra credit, in other words, functions as a little boost, not a giant leap upward.  Multiple extra assignments are not permitted for multiple credits.


A final note: you will receive in class a lengthy bibliography of additional recommended texts on gender, culture, and U.S. imperialism.  These books may not serve as the basis for an extra credit project.  They will, however, help you expand your knowledge of gender, culture, and U.S. imperialism.  They may also prove useful as you frame, research, and write your final paper.


Course Requirements and Grading:


Attendance and informed, productive participation                                   35% of final grade

Paper #1 (five pages, due Tuesday, February 22)                                                10% of final grade

Paper #2 (five pages, due Tuesday, April 5)                                            15% of final grade

Prospectus (due Tuesday, April 19)                                                        5% of final grade

Letter or journal entry by a US soldier, worker,

or activist currently in Iraq (bring copies

to class on Thursday, May 5)                                                     5% of final grade

Final Paper (15 pages, due Thursday, May 19)                                        30% of final grade


All assignments (except for the final paper) are due in class.

Late papers will be penalized one third of a letter grade for each day overdue.

The prospectus and letter/journal entry are graded “full credit/no credit.”

Failure to complete any assignment can lower your grade far in excess of the stated


The assignment for Paper #1 will be distributed on February 10.  The assignments for Paper

#2 and the Final Paper, plus instructions for the prospectus, will be distributed on

March 15.


Course Policies:


            This is a “conference course,” which means that each class session will combine lecture and discussion.  Each meeting will either begin or end with a brief (usually about half an hour) lecture, which will provide historical and cultural context for the readings.  During the discussion, the class may break into small groups led by the professor or the teaching fellow. 

Students will take collective responsibility for the success of every discussion.  This responsibility involves two components.  First, you are required to arrive in class having read and thought about all the reading.  In other words, merely gulping down the reading is inadequate.  You should come to class having chewed and digested the material thoroughly.  You are expected to prepare your own thoughts, opinions, and questions before every class.  Second, you must express your ideas in a respectful manner that advances our conversation.  Practices that disrespect your colleagues (for example, interrupting, hogging the floor, launching personal attacks, or answering cell phones) will shut down rather than further conversation; such practices; therefore, are unacceptable.

            Your productive, informed participation constitutes 35% of your grade for this course.  That means that a student who receives an A on every assignment, but who never speaks in class, will receive a grade of D for the course.  You need not be equally vocal every week, but consistent silence will adversely affect your grade.  Lateness and absence will also lower your grade.






This unit introduces fundamental concepts in the study of gender, culture, and U.S. imperialism.  We ask and answer the following questions: What’s meant by “cultures of imperialism”?  What does it mean to think about imperialism as a cultural project?  What are some important relationships between gender and imperialism?  What are some useful ways of talking about land, invasion, conquer?   Who are the major theorists on these issues, and how can their theories contribute productively to our own intellectual pursuits? 


Thursday, February 3.  Introducing ourselves, introducing foundational concepts. View in class: excerpts from Ke Kulana He Mahu: Remembering a Sense of Place, a film by Kathryn Xian and Brent Anbe


Tuesday, February 8.  Feminine Land, Masculine Invaders

• Annette Kolodny, The Lay of the Land: Metaphor as Experience and History in American Life and Letters (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1975). “Preface” and “Unearthing Herstory: An Introduction,” pp. ix-xi, 3-9. (SB)

Anne Fausto-Sterling, “How to Build a Man.” In The Gender Sexuality Reader, Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo, eds. (New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 244-248 (SB)

Anna Julia Cooper, “The Higher Education of Woman,” from A Voice from the South (Xenia, OH: The Aldine Printing House, 1892), pp. 48-79 (accessible online at


Thursday, February 10. Complicating “Feminine Land, Masculine Invaders”

Amy Kaplan, “Manifest Domesticity,” American Literature 70.3 (Sep. 1998), pp. 581-606. (in SB, or access online through JSTOR)

• Lee Wallace, Sexual Encounters: Pacific Texts, Modern Sexualities (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003), pp. 9-37 (SB)

• Ramon A. Gutierrez, “Internal Colonialism: An American Theory of Race,” Du Bois Review 1.2 (2004), pp. 281-295 (in SB, or access online through HOLLIS)

• Assignment for Paper #1 distributed


RECOMMENDED: Lora Romero, Home Fronts: Domesticity and Its Critics in the Antebellum United States (Durham, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997)


Tuesday, February 15. Imperialism as a Cultural Project

• Edward Said, “Introduction” to Orientalism, “The Scope of Orientalism,” and “Jane Austen and Empire,” plus editors’ introductions.  In The Edward Said Reader, Moustafa Bayoumi and Andrew Rubin, eds. (New York: Vintage Books, 2000), pp. 63-113, 347-367. (SB)

• Reina Lewis, Gendering Orientalism: Race, Femininity, and Representation (London and New York: Routledge, 1996), pp. 15-22. (SB) 


Thursday, February 17. Models in the Study of Imperialism as a Cultural Project

Donna Haraway, “Teddy Bear Patriarchy: Taxidermy in the Garden of Eden, New York City, 1908-1936.” In Cultures of United States Imperialism, Amy Kaplan and Donald E. Pease, eds. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993), pp. 237-291. (SB)

• Laura Wexler, “What a Woman Can Do with a Camera.” In Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U.S. Imperialism (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), pp. 15-51. (SB)



Mary A. Renda, Taking HaitiMilitary Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915-1940 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2001)


Laura Briggs, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002)

Ann Laura Stoler, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002)

Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest (New York: Routledge, 1995)

Gloria Anzaldua, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1987).




In this unit, we apply the analytic methods we encountered in the previous unit.  We read rich primary texts that provide opportunities for us to think about the multiple and complex relationships among gender, culture, and US imperialism.


Tuesday, February 22.  The “Vanishing Red Man” and the Manifest Destiny

• PAPER #1 DUE!!

John Augustus Stone, Metamora; or, The Last of the Wampanoags. 1829.  In Staging the Nation: Plays from the American Theater 1787-1909, Don B. Wilmeth, ed. (Boston: Bedford Books, 1998), pp. 58-98. (SB)

• Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History.” 1893. (in SB, or read online at <>)


RECOMMENDED: David Crockett, The Narrative of the Life of David Crocket by Himself. 1834; reprint, introduced by Paul Andrew Hutton (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1987).


Thursday, February 24.  Contesting the “Vanishing Red Man,” Surviving the Manifest Destiny

Zitkala-Sa, “Impressions of an Indian Childhood,” “The School Days of an Indian Girl, and “An Indian Teacher Among Indians.” 1900-1902. In Zitkala-Sa, American Indian Stories, Legends, and Other Writings, Cathy N. Davidson and Ada Norris, eds. (New York: Penguin Books, 2003), pp. 68-113. (SB)


Tuesday, March 1. Colonization and Abolitionism: Early Debates

• Hon. Hilary Teague, “Liberia: Its Struggles and Its Promises.” 1846. In Masterpieces of Negro Eloquence 1818-1913, ed. Alice Moore Dunbar (Minneola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 2000), pp. 15-20. (SB)

• Henry Clay, “An address delivered to the Colonization Society of Kentucky, at Frankfort, December 17, 1829.” (SB or online at <>)

• David Walker, An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (Boston: privately printed, 1830). Article IV: “Our Wretchedness in Consequence of the Colonizing Plan.” (SB or online at <>)  

• Lyman Beecher, “Dr. Beecher’s Address,” November 1834 (SB or online at <>)

• The Anti-Slavery Record, “What Colonization Means,” July 1835. (SB or online at <>)

• William Lloyd Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization. 1832. (Excerpts in SB)    

Lydia Maria Child, An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans. (Boston: Allen and Ticknor,1833). Chapter V: Colonization Society, and Anti-Slavery Society,” pp. 130-154. (SB or online at <>)


Thursday, March 3.  Colonization and Abolitionism: Debates Surrounding Uncle Tom’s Cabin

• Frederick Douglass, “Colonization.” 26 January 1849 (SB or online at <>)

• Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852), excerpt on the fate of escaped slave George Harris, chapter 43, pp. 299-303 (SB or online at <>) 

• The Thirteenth Annual Report of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 11 May 1853 (SB or online at <>)

• C.V.S., “George Harris,” 22 July 1854. (SB or online at <>)

Letter from Martin R. Delany, with Remarks by Frederick Douglass, 22 March 1853 (SB or online at <>) 

Letter from Martin R. Delany, with Reply by Frederick Douglass, 6 May 1853 (SB or online at <>) 


Tuesday, March 8. An Interdisciplinary Case Study: Sarah Josepha Hale, Or, What do Liberia, “Empire of Woman,” Mass-Market Magazines, and Thanksgiving have in common?

• Sarah Josepha Hale, Liberia; or, Mr. Peyton’s Experiments (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1853). “Preface,” “Liberia as It Is,” “Africa,” and “Appendix,” pp. iv-v, 202-280. (SB or online at <>)

• REVIEW: Amy Kaplan, “Manifest Domesticity,” American Literature 70.3 (Sep. 1998), pp. 581-606. (in SB, or access online through JSTOR)


RECOMMENDED: Susan M. Ryan, “Errand into Africa: Colonization and Nation Building In Sarah J. Hale’s Liberia.” New England Quarterly 68.4, pp. 558-583. (Access online through JSTOR)


Thursday, March 10.  An Interdisciplinary Case Study, continued

• Sarah Josepha Hale, “The Empire of Woman.” 1845. (SB or online at <>)

• Sarah Josepha Hale, “Mary’s Lamb.” 1830. (SB or online at <>)

 Selections from Godey’s Lady’s Book (SB)


Tuesday, March 15. Travels to the South Seas

 Herman Melville, Typee. 1846. Chapters 1-18 (inclusive). (available online at <>)

 Assignment for Paper #2, Prospectus, and Final Paper distributed


Thursday, March 17 Travels to the South Seas, continued

 Herman Melville, Typee, SKIM chapters 19-28; READ chapter 29-end.

 Captain James Cook, “The Discovery of the Hawaiian Islands.” 1784. In A Hawaiian Reader, A. Grove Day and Carl Stroven, eds. (Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing Paperback Press), pp. 1-10. (SB)

• Lee Wallace, Sexual Encounters: Pacific Texts, Modern Sexualities (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003). “Sexual Encounter in Hawaii on Cook’s Third Voyage,” pp. 38-56. (SB)

Peruse eleven stereographs of Hawaii at <>.  Please note that it may be necessary to click on an image to view it.



Adria L. Imada, “Hawaiians on Tour: Hula Circuits through the American Empire,” American Quarterly 56.1 (March 2004): 111-149 (access online through Project Muse).

• Mark Twain, “The Sandwich Islands: Views of Mark Twain” <>  AND Mark Twain, “The Sandwich Islands: Concluding Views of Mark Twain” <> AND Mark Twain, “Our Fellow Savages of the Sandwich Islands” (lecture) <>


Tuesday, March 22. Resistance: Hawaii’s Queen Liliuokalani

  Liliuokalani, Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen.   Read through Chapter XLVII, “Released on Parole.”  (online at <>)

  The National American Woman Suffrage Association, “On Behalf of Hawaiian Women.” The Woman’s Journal 30 (Feb. 11, 1899). (SB or online at <>)



“Historical Chronology: Key Events in the History of Hawai`i
Since Contact with Western Culture, 1778 – 1993” <> (This chronology may not serve as the basis for an extra credit project)


Thursday, March 24. Liliuokalani, continued

  Liliuokalani, Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen, continued.  Read Chapter XLVIII, “Mr. Joseph Kahooluhi Nawahi” through the end.


Tuesday, March 29. SPRING BREAK!

Thursday, March 31. SPRING BREAK!


Tuesday, April 5.  “The White Man’s Burden”

• PAPER #2 DUE!!

• Rudyard Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden.” McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899). (SB or online at <>)

Gail Bederman, Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917, Chapter 5, “Theodore Roosevelt: Manhood, Nation, and ‘Civilization,’” pp. 170-215.  (SB)

Boy Scouts of America: The Official Handbook for Boys. (1911; reprint, Bedford, MA: Applewood Books, n.d.).  Pages x-xii, 3-12, 219-233, 237-251, 279-288, 353-356.   (SB)


Thursday, April 7.  “The Black Man’s Burden”?

• Eugene O’Neill, The Emperor Jones. 1920.  (SB or online at <>)

J. Dallas Bowser, “Take Up the Black Man's Burden.” The Colored American (D.C.), March 18, 1899. (SB or online at <>)

X-Ray, “Charity Begins at HomeThe Colored American (D.C.), 1899. (SB or online at <>)

H. T. Johnson, “The Black Man's Burden.” The Christian Recorder, 1899. (SB or online at <>)

Lulu Baxter Guy, “The Black Man's Burden.” Cleveland Journal, 1903. (SB or online at <>)


Tuesday, April 12. An Interdisciplinary Case Study: The Occupation of the Philippines in Performance, Children’s Literature, Visual Culture, and Political Essays

• REVIEW Laura Wexler, “What a Woman Can Do with a Camera.” In Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U.S. Imperialism (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina

Press, 2000), pp. 15-51. (SB)

• Sixto Lopez and Thomas T. Patterson, “The Filipinos Will Not ‘Take Up the White Man’s Burden.’” The Public, 1904 (SB or online at  <>)

• Clemencia Lopez, “Women of the PhilippinesThe Woman's Journal (June 7, 1902). Address at the annual meeting of the New England Woman Suffrage Association, May 29, 1902. (SB or online at <>)

Aurelio Tolentino, Luhang Tagalog (“Tagalog Tears”). 1902.  From Arthur Stanley Riggs, The Filipino Drama (1905; reprint, Manila: Ministry of Human Settlements Intramuros Adminstration, 1981), pp. 62-119. (SB)

• “The Crowning Infamy of Imperialism” (Philadelphia: American League of Philadelphia, [1900]) (SB or online at <>)

• Lida Calvert Obenchain, “The Philippine War.” The Woman's Journal 30 (June 3, 1899). (SB or online at <>)

• Mary A. Livermore, “Remarks at the Annual Meeting of the new England Anti-Imperialist League,” November 30, 1903. (SB or online at <>)



• Mark Twain, “To the Person Sitting in Darkness.” (Online at <>)

• Helen C. Wilson, A Massachusetts Woman in the Philippines: Notes and Observations. (Boston: Fiske Warren, 1903). (Online at <>)


Thursday, April 14.  An Interdisciplinary Case Study, continued

• Christopher A. Vaughan, “Ogling Igorots: The Politics and Commerce of Exhibiting Cultural Otherness, 1898-1913.” In Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body, Rosemarie Thompson Garland, ed. (New York: NYU Press, 1996), pp. 219-233. (SB)

• A. Hidalgo Rizal, “Address Before the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League,” December 3, 1907. (SB or online at>)

View the following photographs from The Book of the Fair, 1904:

The Filipino of Yesterday <>

The Filipino of Today <>

Dance of the Igorots <>

All Is Vanity: An Igorrote Maid  <>

Moro Chief in Full Dress <>

Igorrote Warrior Ready for the Fray <>

An Igorrote Chief at the Exposition <>

A Native of the Philippines at the World's Fair <>

A Filipino Belle <>

Moro Chief Posing at the World's Fair <>

Two Moro Fashion Plates <>

Savage Musicians and Dancers <>

• Palmer Cox, The Brownies in the Philippines (New York: The Century Company, 1904). “The Brownies on Mindoro,” “The Brownies on Romblon,” “The Brownies on Luzon,” “The Brownies at Manila Bay,” “The Brownies on Negros,” pp. 1-7, 22-29, 54-60, 85-92, 127-133 (SB)


Tuesday, April 19. Anti-Racism and Anti-Imperialism


• W.E.B. Du Bois, Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. 1920. Chapters 1-5 (inclusive).


Thursday, April 21. Anti-Racism and Anti-Imperialism continued

• W.E.B. Du Bois, Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. 1920. Chapters 5-10 (inclusive).


Tuesday, April 26.  Activism and Resistance

Katharine Lee Bates, “Glory.” From America the Beautiful and Other Poems (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1911). (SB or online at <>)

Jane Addams, Peace and Bread in Time of War. 1922; reprint, introduced by Katherine Joslin (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002). Read Joslin’s Introduction and all of Addams’ book.  Addams’ text is available online at <>, but you must go to the University of Illinois book for Joslin’s very useful introduction.


Thursday, April 28. Activism and Resistance: Vivian Stromberg and Madre

• “‘What if They Gave a War. . .’: A Conversation between Cynthia Enloe, Vivian Stromberg, and the Editors of Ms. Magazine.” In Cynthia Enloe, The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in a New Age of Empire (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004), pp. 131-144. (SB)

• Peruse Madre’s website at <>

Other reading TBA


Tuesday, May 3.  Iraq before and after 9/11/2001

View before class: “Frontline: The War behind Closed Doors”

(You may borrow the video from the WGS office or view the program online at

Lynda Boose, “Techno-Muscularity and the ‘Boy Eternal’: From the Quagmire to the Gulf.” In Cultures of United States Imperialism, Amy Kaplan and Donald E. Pease, eds. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993), pp. 581-616. (SB)

Peruse the website of the think-tank, “Project for the New American Century” <>.  Be sure to read the “Statement of Principles” at <>


Melani McAlister, “After 9/11: Images of Us” <>

Hazel Carby, “A Strange and Bitter Crop: The Spectacle of Torture,” OpenDemocracy 11-10-2004 <>

  Melani McAlister, “Saving Private Lynch,” New York Times, 6 April 2003, Section 4 , p. 13, Column 2 <> 


Thursday, May 5. Iraq and the US Today

  Obtain a letter or journal entry by a US soldier, worker, or activist currently in Iraq (a blog entry is appropriate).  The writer may be someone you know, or someone you’ve never met.  The letter or journal entry’s content should relate explicitly or implicitly to issues we have discussed this semester.  Bring enough copies of the letter or journal entry for all your classmates.  Be prepared to explain and comment upon the connections you see between your text and the course.

Joe Sharkey, “Many Women Say Airport Pat-Downs are a Humiliation,” New York Times,23 November 2004, Section A , Page 1, Column 6 (SB)

Maureen Dowd, “Hiding Breast Bombs,” New York Times, 25 November 2004, Section A, Page 35 , Column 1 (SB)

Yifat Susskind, “One Year Later: Women’s Human Rights in ‘Liberated’ Iraq.” (SB or online at  <>)

• Cynthia Enloe, “Updating the Gendered Empire: Where are the Women in Occupied Afghanistan and Iraq?” In The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in a New Age of Empire (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004), pp. 268-305. (SB)

Other readings TBA


Thursday, May 19: Paper Due!














“[I]mperialism understood itself primarily as a cultural project involved in naming, classifying, textualizing, appropriating, exterminating, demarcating, and governing a new regime.” 

--Donald E. Pease, “New Perspectives on U.S. Culture and Imperialism”


“[E]mpires must have a mould of ideas or conditioned reflexes to flow into.”

--V.G. Kiernan, Marxism and Imperialism