and the Cultures of
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10-11:30
Course website: <http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~rbernst/WGS1203.html>
Teaching Fellow: Lilith Mahmud
Many thinkers of
diverse political affiliations believe that George W. Bush’s presidency will
prove pivotal to
provides students with specific analytical tools by which to engage in that
intellectual project. We will use the
methods of Cultural Studies to
Cultural Studies opens unique avenues by which to consider issues of gender. Analyses of imperialism based in military history or international relations often focus on men as colonizers and conquerors, women as victims. In contrast, this course’s focus on culture opens the following questions:
1. How has gender affected the experiences of colonized people (and how has the experience of being colonized affected those people’s genders)?
2. How has gender affected the experiences of colonizers (and how has the experience of colonizing affected those people’s genders)?
3. How has gender functioned as part of the ideologies and strategies of American imperialism?
4. How has gender functioned as part of the ideologies and strategies of anti-imperialist activism and resistance?
questions constitute the heart of this course.
We examine gender, culture, and
Required texts (available, unless otherwise noted, at the Harvard Bookstore):
• Jane Addams, Peace and Bread in Time of War
• W.E.B. Du Bois, Darkwater
• Liliu'okalani, Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen (online at
• Herman Melville, Typee
• Sourcebook (“SB”) The Sourcebook is on 3-hour reserve at Lamont Library.
• Web resources as indicated in syllabus
Weekly lectures in this course will provide historical context to assist your reading of literary texts. The lectures do not, however, aim to create a comprehensive survey of American imperialist ventures over the past three hundred years. If you would like to encounter such a survey, I recommend The United States and Imperialism, by Frank Ninkovich. Sidney Lens’ classic The Forging of the American Empire from the Revolution to Vietnam: A History of U.S. Imperialism provides another exceptionally useful overview. Both these books are available at the Harvard Bookstore.
Extra credit opportunity: Several weeks pair the required reading with specific recommended texts. You may read one of these recommended texts, write a response paper of two full pages, and bring your knowledge of the text to the class discussion in a meaningful way in the designated week. A student who takes this option will, if his or her final average hovers between two grades, receive the higher grade. In other words, if your final average is 3.16 and you have not completed an extra credit assignment, you may receive, at the discretion of the professor, either a B or a B+ for the course. If, however, you completed an extra credit assignment, you will receive the B+. If your average does not fall between grades, the extra credit will not affect your final grade. For example, if your average is 3.03, you will receive a B regardless of whether you completed extra credit. The extra credit, in other words, functions as a little boost, not a giant leap upward. Multiple extra assignments are not permitted for multiple credits.
A final note: you
will receive in class a lengthy bibliography of additional recommended texts on
gender, culture, and
Course Requirements and Grading:
Attendance and informed, productive participation 35% of final grade
Paper #1 (five pages, due Tuesday, February 22) 10% of final grade
Paper #2 (five pages, due Tuesday, April 5) 15% of final grade
Prospectus (due Tuesday, April 19) 5% of final grade
Letter or journal
entry by a
or activist currently in
to class on Thursday, May 5) 5% of final grade
Final Paper (15 pages, due Thursday, May 19) 30% of final grade
All assignments (except for the final paper) are due in class.
Late papers will be penalized one third of a letter grade for each day overdue.
The prospectus and letter/journal entry are graded “full credit/no credit.”
Failure to complete any assignment can lower your grade far in excess of the stated
The assignment for Paper #1 will be distributed on February 10. The assignments for Paper
#2 and the Final Paper, plus instructions for the prospectus, will be distributed on
This is a “conference course,” which means that each class session will combine lecture and discussion. Each meeting will either begin or end with a brief (usually about half an hour) lecture, which will provide historical and cultural context for the readings. During the discussion, the class may break into small groups led by the professor or the teaching fellow.
Students will take collective responsibility for the success of every discussion. This responsibility involves two components. First, you are required to arrive in class having read and thought about all the reading. In other words, merely gulping down the reading is inadequate. You should come to class having chewed and digested the material thoroughly. You are expected to prepare your own thoughts, opinions, and questions before every class. Second, you must express your ideas in a respectful manner that advances our conversation. Practices that disrespect your colleagues (for example, interrupting, hogging the floor, launching personal attacks, or answering cell phones) will shut down rather than further conversation; such practices; therefore, are unacceptable.
Your productive, informed participation constitutes 35% of your grade for this course. That means that a student who receives an A on every assignment, but who never speaks in class, will receive a grade of D for the course. You need not be equally vocal every week, but consistent silence will adversely affect your grade. Lateness and absence will also lower your grade.
This unit introduces fundamental concepts
in the study of gender, culture, and
Thursday, February 3. Introducing ourselves, introducing foundational concepts. View in class: excerpts from Ke Kulana He Mahu: Remembering a Sense of Place, a film by Kathryn Xian and Brent Anbe
Tuesday, February 8.
• Annette Kolodny, The Lay of the Land: Metaphor as Experience and History in American Life and Letters (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1975). “Preface” and “Unearthing Herstory: An Introduction,” pp. ix-xi, 3-9. (SB)
Fausto-Sterling, “How to Build a
• Anna Julia Cooper, “The Higher Education of Woman,” from A Voice from the South (Xenia, OH: The Aldine Printing House, 1892), pp. 48-79 (accessible online at http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/cooper/cooper.html)
Thursday, February 10. Complicating “
• Amy Kaplan, “Manifest Domesticity,” American Literature 70.3 (Sep. 1998), pp. 581-606. (in SB, or access online through JSTOR)
• Lee Wallace, Sexual Encounters: Pacific Texts, Modern
• Ramon A. Gutierrez, “Internal Colonialism: An American Theory of Race,” Du Bois Review 1.2 (2004), pp. 281-295 (in SB, or access online through HOLLIS)
• Assignment for Paper #1 distributed
Romero, Home Fronts: Domesticity and Its Critics in the Antebellum
Tuesday, February 15. Imperialism as a Cultural Project
• Edward Said, “Introduction”
to Orientalism, “The Scope of Orientalism,”
and “Jane Austen and Empire,” plus editors’ introductions. In The
Edward Said Reader, Moustafa Bayoumi and Andrew Rubin, eds. (
• Reina Lewis, Gendering Orientalism: Race, Femininity, and Representation (London and New York: Routledge, 1996), pp. 15-22. (SB)
Thursday, February 17. Models in the Study of Imperialism as a Cultural Project
• Donna Haraway, “Teddy Bear Patriarchy: Taxidermy in the
Garden of Eden, New York City, 1908-1936.” In Cultures of
• Laura Wexler,
“What a Woman Can Do with a Camera.” In Tender
Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of
• Mary A.
Renda, Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915-1940
Briggs, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and
• Ann Laura Stoler, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial
Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (
• Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest (New York: Routledge, 1995)
• Gloria Anzaldua, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1987).
UNIT II: TEXTS
In this unit, we apply the analytic
methods we encountered in the previous unit.
We read rich primary texts that provide opportunities for us to think
about the multiple and complex relationships among gender, culture, and
Tuesday, February 22. The “Vanishing Red Man” and the Manifest Destiny
• PAPER #1 DUE!!
• John Augustus Stone, Metamora; or, The Last of the Wampanoags. 1829. In Staging the Nation: Plays from the American Theater 1787-1909, Don B. Wilmeth, ed. (Boston: Bedford Books, 1998), pp. 58-98. (SB)
• Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History.” 1893. (in SB, or read online at <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/TURNER/chapter1.html>)
RECOMMENDED: David Crockett, The Narrative of the Life of David Crocket by Himself. 1834; reprint, introduced by Paul Andrew Hutton (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1987).
Thursday, February 24. Contesting the “Vanishing Red Man,” Surviving the Manifest Destiny
• Zitkala-Sa, “Impressions of an Indian Childhood,” “The
School Days of an Indian Girl, and “An Indian Teacher Among Indians.”
1900-1902. In Zitkala-Sa, American Indian
Stories, Legends, and Other Writings, Cathy N. Davidson and
Tuesday, March 1. Colonization and Abolitionism: Early Debates
• Hon. Hilary
• Henry Clay, “An address delivered to the Colonization Society of
• David Walker, An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (Boston: privately printed, 1830). Article IV: “Our Wretchedness in Consequence of the Colonizing Plan.” (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/abolitn/abesdwa2t.html>)
• Lyman Beecher, “Dr. Beecher’s Address,” November 1834 (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/abolitn/abes38at.html>)
• The Anti-Slavery Record, “What Colonization Means,” July 1835. (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/abolitn/abar40bt.html>)
• William Lloyd Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization. 1832. (Excerpts in SB)
Thursday, March 3. Colonization and Abolitionism: Debates Surrounding Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Frederick Douglass, “Colonization.” 26 January 1849 (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/abolitn/abar03at.html>)
• Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852), excerpt on the fate of escaped slave George Harris, chapter 43, pp. 299-303 (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/uncletom/utfihbsa43t.html>)
• The Thirteenth Annual Report of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 11 May 1853 (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/abolitn/abesanoat.html>)
• C.V.S., “George Harris,” 22 July 1854. (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/africam/afar64dt.html>)
• Letter from Martin R. Delany, with Remarks by Frederick Douglass, 22 March 1853 (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/africam/afar03ut.html>)
Letter from Martin R. Delany, with Reply by Frederick Douglass, 6 May 1853 (SB or online at <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/africam/afar03rt.html>)
Tuesday, March 8. An Interdisciplinary Case Study: Sarah
Josepha Hale, Or, What do
• Sarah Josepha
• REVIEW: Amy Kaplan, “Manifest Domesticity,” American Literature 70.3 (Sep. 1998), pp. 581-606. (in SB, or access online through JSTOR)
Susan M. Ryan, “Errand into Africa: Colonization and
Thursday, March 10. An Interdisciplinary Case Study, continued
• Sarah Josepha Hale, “The Empire of Woman.” 1845. (SB or online at <http://www.lehigh.edu/~dek7/SSAWW/writHaleEmpire.htm>)
• Sarah Josepha Hale, “Mary’s Lamb.” 1830. (SB or online at <http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem911.html>)
• Selections from Godey’s Lady’s Book (SB)
Tuesday, March 15. Travels to the
• Herman Melville, Typee. 1846. Chapters 1-18 (inclusive). (available online at <http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/36/1007/frameset.html>)
• Assignment for Paper #2, Prospectus, and Final Paper distributed
Thursday, March 17 Travels to the South Seas, continued
• Herman Melville, Typee, SKIM chapters 19-28; READ chapter 29-end.
James Cook, “The Discovery of the
• Lee Wallace, Sexual Encounters: Pacific Texts, Modern
• Peruse eleven stereographs of
• Adria L. Imada, “Hawaiians on Tour: Hula Circuits through the American Empire,” American Quarterly 56.1 (March 2004): 111-149 (access online through Project Muse).
• Mark Twain, “The Sandwich Islands: Views of Mark Twain” <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/twain/hawaii1873a.html> AND Mark Twain, “The Sandwich Islands: Concluding Views of Mark Twain” <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/twain/hawaii1873b.html> AND Mark Twain, “Our Fellow Savages of the Sandwich Islands” (lecture) <http://www.boondocksnet.com/twaintexts/speeches/mts_sandwich_islands730207.html>
Tuesday, March 22. Resistance:
• The National American Woman Suffrage Association, “On Behalf of Hawaiian Women.” The Woman’s Journal 30 (Feb. 11, 1899). (SB or online at <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/wj/wj_18990211b.html>)
OPTIONAL AND USEFUL:
Thursday, March 24. Liliuokalani, continued
Tuesday, March 29. SPRING BREAK!
Thursday, March 31. SPRING BREAK!
Tuesday, April 5. “The White Man’s Burden”
• PAPER #2 DUE!!
• Rudyard Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden.” McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899). (SB or online at <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/kipling/kipling.html>)
Bederman, Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race
Thursday, April 7. “The Black Man’s Burden”?
• Eugene O’Neill, The Emperor Jones. 1920. (SB or online at <http://www.eoneill.com/texts/jones/contents.htm>)
• J. Dallas Bowser, “Take Up the Black Man's Burden.” The Colored American (D.C.), March 18, 1899. (SB or online at <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/kipling/bowser.html>)
• H. T. Johnson, “The Black Man's Burden.” The Christian Recorder, 1899. (SB or online at <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/kipling/johnson2.html>)
Tuesday, April 12. An Interdisciplinary Case Study: The Occupation of the Philippines in Performance, Children’s Literature, Visual Culture, and Political Essays
• REVIEW Laura
Wexler, “What a Woman Can Do with a Camera.” In Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of
Press, 2000), pp. 15-51. (SB)
• Sixto Lopez and Thomas T. Patterson, “The Filipinos Will Not ‘Take Up the White Man’s Burden.’” The Public, 1904 (SB or online at <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/kipling/lopez_wmb.html>)
• Aurelio Tolentino, Luhang Tagalog (“Tagalog
Tears”). 1902. From Arthur Stanley
Riggs, The Filipino Drama (1905; reprint,
• Mary A. Livermore, “Remarks at the Annual Meeting of the new England Anti-Imperialist League,” November 30, 1903. (SB or online at <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/ailtexts/livermore.html>)
• Mark Twain, “To the Person Sitting in Darkness.” (Online at <http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/twain/persit.html>)
• Helen C. Wilson, A
Thursday, April 14. An Interdisciplinary Case Study, continued
• Christopher A. Vaughan, “Ogling Igorots: The Politics and Commerce of Exhibiting Cultural Otherness, 1898-1913.” In Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body, Rosemarie Thompson Garland, ed. (New York: NYU Press, 1996), pp. 219-233. (SB)
• A. Hidalgo Rizal, “Address Before the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League,” December 3, 1907. (SB or online at http://www.boondocksnet.com/ai/vof/rizal071203.html>)
• View the following photographs from The Book of the Fair, 1904:
• Palmer Cox, The Brownies in the
Tuesday, April 19. Anti-Racism and Anti-Imperialism
• PROSPECTUS DUE!!
• W.E.B. Du Bois, Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. 1920. Chapters 1-5 (inclusive).
Thursday, April 21. Anti-Racism and Anti-Imperialism continued
• W.E.B. Du Bois, Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. 1920. Chapters 5-10 (inclusive).
Tuesday, April 26. Activism and Resistance
• Katharine Lee Bates, “Glory.” From
• Jane Addams, Peace
and Bread in Time of War. 1922; reprint, introduced by Katherine Joslin (
Thursday, April 28. Activism and Resistance: Vivian Stromberg and Madre
• “‘What if They
Gave a War. . .’: A Conversation between Cynthia Enloe, Vivian Stromberg, and
the Editors of Ms. Magazine.” In Cynthia Enloe, The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in a New Age of Empire (
• Peruse Madre’s website at <http://www.madre.org>
• Other reading TBA
Tuesday, May 3.
• View before class: “Frontline: The War behind Closed Doors”
(You may borrow the video from the WGS office or view the program online at
• Lynda Boose, “Techno-Muscularity and the ‘Boy
Eternal’: From the Quagmire to the Gulf.” In Cultures of
• Peruse the website of the think-tank, “Project for the New American Century” <http://www.newamericancentury.org>. Be sure to read the “Statement of Principles” at <http://www.newamericancentury.org/statementofprinciples.htm>
• Melani McAlister, “After 9/11: Images of Us” <http://www.uwgb.edu/teachingushistory/images/2004_lectures/mcalister_after_911.pdf>
• Hazel Carby, “A Strange and Bitter Crop: The Spectacle of Torture,” OpenDemocracy 11-10-2004 <http://www.opendemocracy.net/debates/article-8-112-2149.jsp>
• Melani McAlister, “Saving Private Lynch,” New York Times, 6 April 2003, Section 4 , p. 13, Column 2 <http://www.iht.com/articles/92615.html>
Thursday, May 5.
• Obtain a letter or journal entry by a
• Joe Sharkey, “Many Women Say Airport Pat-Downs are a
• Maureen Dowd, “Hiding Breast Bombs,” New York Times, 25 November 2004, Section A, Page 35 , Column 1 (SB)
• Yifat Susskind, “One Year
Later: Women’s Human Rights in ‘Liberated’
• Cynthia Enloe,
“Updating the Gendered Empire: Where are the Women in Occupied Afghanistan and
• Other readings TBA
Thursday, May 19: Paper Due!
“[I]mperialism understood itself primarily as a cultural project involved in naming, classifying, textualizing, appropriating, exterminating, demarcating, and governing a new regime.”
--Donald E. Pease, “New Perspectives on
“[E]mpires must have a mould of ideas or conditioned reflexes to flow into.”
--V.G. Kiernan, Marxism and Imperialism