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Publications

Charlesworth, T. E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (in press) Word embeddings reveal social group attitudes and stereotypes in large language corpora. The Atlas of Language Analysis in Psychology (eds. Dehghani, M. & Boyd, R.). New York: Guildford Press.
Charlesworth, T. E. S. & Banaji, M. R. (in press). The development of social group cognition: What infants and young children can teach us. Handbook of social cognition (Eds. D. Carlston et al.) Oxford Handbook of Social Cognition, 2nd Edition.
Charlesworth, T. E. S. & Banaji, M. R. (2021). Patterns of implicit and explicit stereotypes III: Long-term change in gender-science and gender-career stereotypes. Social Psychological and Personality Science.
Charlesworth, T.E.S., & Banaji, M. R. (2021). Patterns of implicit and explicit attitudes II: Long-term change and stability, regardless of group membership. American Psychologist.
Charlesworth, T.E.S., Yang, V., Mann, T. C., Kurdi, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2021). Gender stereotypes in natural language: Word embeddings show robust consistency across child and adult language corpora of 65+ million words. Psychological Science.
Marini, M., & Banaji, M. R. (in press). Intergroup Behavior. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience.
Marini, M., & Banaji M. R. (2020). An implicit gender sex-science association in the general population and STEM faculty. Journal of General Psychology, 1-28. doi: 10.1080/00221309.2020.1853502.
Storage, D., Charlesworth, T. E. S. Banaji, M. R., & Cimpian, A. (2020). Adults and children implicitly associate brilliance with men more than women. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 104020
Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., Maddox, C. D., Nosek, B. A., Rudman, L. A., Devos, T. Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., Steffens, M. C., Lane, K., Horcajo, J., Ashburn-Nardo, L., Quinby, A., Srivastava, S. B., Schmidt, K., Aidman, E., Tang, E., Farnham, S., Mellott, D. S., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (in press). Meta-analytic use of Balanced Identity Theory to validate the Implicit Association Test. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Kang, O., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). Pupillometric decoding of high-level musical imagery. Consciousness and Cognition.
Charlesworth, T. E. S., Kurdi, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). Children’s implicit attitude acquisition: Evaluative statements succeed, repeated pairings fail. Developmental Science.
Hilgard, S., Rosenfeld, N., Banaji, M. R., Cao, J., & Parkes, D. C. (2019). Learning Representations by Humans, for Humans. arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.12686.
Cao, J., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). Inferring an unobservable population size from observable samples. Memory & Cognition.
Charlesworth, T. E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). How Americans’ Biases Are Changing (or Not) Over Time. Harvard Business Review
Charlesworth, T. E. S., Hudson, S. K. T., Cogsdill, E. J., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). Children use targets’ facial appearance to guide and predict social behavior. Developmental Psychology (37), 7228-7243, https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0475-18.2019.
Charlesworth, T. E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). Gender in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Issues, Causes, Solutions. Journal of Neuroscience, 39 (37), 7228-7243, https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0475-18.2019.
Charlesworth, T. E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2019).Face-trait cues and face-race cues in adults’ and children’s social evaluation. Social Cognition, 37(4), 357-388.
Mann, T., Kurdi, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). How effectively can implicit evaluations be updated? Using evaluative statements after aversive repeated evaluative pairings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000701.
Banaji, M. R. (In press). Foreword to Gordon W. Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice (1952), First Chinese Edition. Hina Publishing House.
Kurdi, B., Gershman, S., Banaji, M. R. (2019). Model-free and model-based learning processes in the updating of explicit and implicit evaluations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Kurdi, B., Mann, T.C., Charlesworth, T. E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (in press). The relationship between implicit intergroup attitudes and beliefs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Kurdi, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). Attitude change via repeated evaluative pairings versus evaluative statements: Shared and unique features. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Marini, M., Banaji, M. R., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2019). Studying implicit social cognition with noninvasive brain stimulation. Trends in Cognitive Science.
Kurdi, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). Relationship between the Implicit Association Test and explicit measures of intergroup cognition: Data from the meta-analysis by Kurdi et al.
Cao, J., Kleiman-Weiner, M., & Banaji, M.R. (2019). People Make the Same Bayesian Judgment They Criticize in Others. Psychological Science.
Charlesworth, T. (2019). Patterns of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes 1. Long-term change and stability from 2007-2016. Psychological Science.
Lehr, S. A., Ferreira, M. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). When outgroup negativity trumps ingroup positivity: Fans of the Boston Red Sox and New York Yankees place greater value on rival losses than own-team gains. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.
Kurdi, B., Seitchik, A. E., Axt, J. R., Carroll, T. J., Karapetyan, A., Kaushik, N., Tomezsko, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2018). Relationship between the Implicit Association Test and intergroup behavior: A meta-analysis. American Psychologist.
Lai, C., & Banaji, M. R. (2019). If bias is implicit, can it be changed? Psychological understanding of social injustice. In D. Allen & R. Somanathan (Eds.) Difference with Domination.
Lai, C., & Banaji, M. R. (In press). The Psychology of Implicit Intergroup Bias and the Prospect of Change. In D. Allen & R. Somanathan (Eds.) Difference with Domination. [Penultimate Draft]  
Cao, J., & Banaji, M. R. (2017) Social Inferences from Group Size. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 70, 204-211
Cao, J., Kleinman-Weiner, M., & Banaji, M. R. (2017). Statistically inaccurate and morally unfair judgments via base rate intrusion. Nature Human Behavior.
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2017). The Implicit revolution: Reconceiving the relationship between conscious and unconscious. American Psychologist.
Kurdi, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2017). Repeated evaluative pairing and evaluative statements: How effectively do they shift implicit attitudes? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(2), 194–213.
Kurdi, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2017). Reports of the death of the individual difference approach to implicit social cognition may be greatly exaggerated. Psychological Inquiry.
Kurdi, B., Diaz, A. J., Wilmuth, C. A., Friedman, M. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2017) Variations in the relationship between memory confidence and memory accuracy: The effects of spontaneous accessibility, list length, modality and complexity. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice.
Cao, J., & Banaji, M. R. (2016). The base rate principle and the fairness principle in social judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 113, 7475-7480.
Dunham, Y., Baron, A.S., & Banaji, M. R. (2016). The development of implicit gender attitudes. Developmental Science.
Kurdi, B., Lozano, S., & Banaji, M. R. (2016). Introducing the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS). Behavior Research Methods.
Levin, D. T., Baker, L. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2016). Cognition can affect perception: Restating the evidence of a top-down effect. Brain and Behavioral Science.
Ayers, I., Banaji, M. R., & Jolls, C. (2015). Race effects on eBay. Rand Journal of Economics, 46(4), 891-917.
Banaji, M. R., Bhaskar, R., & Brownstein, M. (2015). When bias is implicit, how might we think about repairing harm? Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 183-188.
Cogsdill, E. & Banaji, M. R. (2015). Face-trait inferences show robust child-adult agreement: Evidence from three types of faces on "mean" versus "nice" judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 60, 150-156.
Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2015). Statistically small effects of the
Implicit Association Test can have societally large effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(4), 553-561.
Kubota, J. T., Li, J., Bar-David E., Banaji, M. R., & Phelps, E. A. (2015). All claims in the
original paper hold as stated: A response to Arkes. Psychological Science, 26(2), 246-248.
Baron, A. S., Dunham, Y., Banaji, M., & Carey, S. (2014). Constraints on the acquisition of social category concepts. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15(2), 238-268.
Cogsdill, E. J., Todorov, A. T., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2014). Inferring character from faces a developmental study. Psychological Science, 25(5), 1132-1139.
Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2014). The formation of belief-based social preferences. Social Cognition, 32(1), 22-47.
Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., Harris, P. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2014). What do different beliefs tell us? An examination of factual, opinion-based, and religious beliefs. Cognitive Development, 30, 15-29.
Lai, C. K., Marini, M., Lehr, S. A., Cerruti, C., Shin, J. L., Joy-Gaba, J. A., Ho, A. K., Teachman, B. A., Wojcik, S. P., Koleva, S. P., Frazier, R. S., Heiphetz, L., Chen, E., Turner, R. N., Haidt, J., Kesebir, S., Hawkins, C. B., Schaefer, H. S., Rubichi, S., Sartori, G., Dial, C. M., Sriram, N., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2014). Reducing implicit racial preferences: I. A comparative investigation of 17 interventions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advance Online Publication.
Banaji, M. R. (2013). Our bounded rationality. In J. Brockman (Ed.), This explains everything: Deep, beautiful, and elegant theories of how the world works (pp. 94-95). New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
Contreras, J. M., Banaji, M. R., & Mitchell, J. P. (2013). Multivoxel patterns in fusiform face area differentiate faces by sex and race. PLoS One, 8, e69684.
Contreras, J. M., Schirmer, J., Banaji, M. R., & Mitchell, J. P. (2013). Common brain regions with distinct patterns of neural responses during mentalizing about groups and individuals. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(9), 1406-1417.
Dunham, Y., Chen, E. E., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). Two Signatures of Implicit Intergroup Attitudes Developmental Invariance and Early Enculturation. Psychological Science, 24(6), 860-868.
Hardin, C. D., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The nature of implicit prejudice: Implications for personal and public policy. In E. Shafir (Ed.), The behavioral foundations of public policy (pp. 13-31). Princeton University Press.
Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., Harris, P. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The development of reasoning about beliefs: Fact, preference, and ideology. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(3), 559-565.
Ho, A. K., Sidanius, J., Cuddy, A. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). Status boundary enforcement and the categorization of black–white biracials. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(5), 940-943.
Kubota, J. T., Li, J., Bar-David, E., Banaji, M. R., & Phelps, E. A. (2013). The Price of Racial Bias Intergroup Negotiations in the Ultimatum Game. Psychological Science, 24(12), 2498-2504.
Olson, K. R., Heberlein, A. S., Kensinger, E., Burrows, C., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The role of forgetting in undermining good intentions. PloS one, 8(11), e79091.
Carney, D. R., & Banaji, M. R. (2012). First is best. PloS one, 7(6), e35088.
Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). Patterns of implicit and explicit attitudes in children and adults: Tests in the domain of religion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 864.
Kubota, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Phelps, E. A. (2012). The neuroscience of race. Nature Neuroscience, 15(7), 940-948.
Otten, M., & Banaji, M. R. (2012). Social categories shape the neural representation of emotion: evidence from a visual face adaptation task. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6, 9.
Stanley, D. A., Sokol-Hessner, P., Fareri, D. S., Perino, M. T., Delgado, M. R., Banaji, M. R., & Phelps, E. A. (2012). Race and reputation: perceived racial group trustworthiness influences the neural correlates of trust decisions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1589), 744-753.
Ziv, T., & Banaji, M. R. (2012). Representations of social groups in the early years of life. In S. T. Fiske & C. N. Macrae (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Social Cognition (pp. 372-389). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Banaji, M. R. (2011). A vehicle for large-scale education about the human mind. In J. Brockman (Ed.) How is the internet changing the way you think? (pp. 392-395). New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Banaji, M. R. (2011). Undeserved recognition. In R. Arkin (Ed.), Most underappreciated: 50 prominent social psychologists talk about their most unloved work (pp. 14-16). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Banaji, M. R. (2011). The dark dark side of the mind. National Humanities Center, On the Human. www.onthehuman.org
Banaji, M. R. (2011). A solution for collapsed thinking: Signal Detection Theory. In J. Brockman (Ed.), This will make you smarter: New scientific concepts to improve your thinking (pp. 389-393). New York, NY: Harper.
Contreras, J. M., Banaji, M. R., & Mitchell, J. P. (2011). Dissociable neural correlates of stereotypes and other forms of semantic knowledge. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(7), 764-770.
Devos, T., Huynh, Q-L., & Banaji, M.R. (2011). Implicit self and identity. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (2nd ed., pp. 155-179). New York, NY: Guilford.
Ho, A. K., Sidanius, J., Levin, D. T., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Evidence for hypodescent and racial hierarchy in the categorization and perception of biracial individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(3), 492-506.
Olson, K. R., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Children’s responses to group-based inequalities: Perpetuation and rectification. Social Cognition, 29(3), 270-287.
Srivastava, S. B., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Culture, cognition, and collaborative networks in organizations. American Sociological Review, 76(2), 207-233.
Stanley, D. A., Sokol-Hessner, P., Banaji, M. R., & Phelps, E. A. (2011). Reply to Krueger: Good point, wrong paper. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(32), E411-E411.
Stanley, D. A., Sokol-Hessner, P., Banaji, M. R., & Phelps, E. A. (2011). Implicit race attitudes predict trustworthiness judgments and economic trust decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(19), 7710-7715.
Tsay, C. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Naturals and strivers: Preferences and beliefs about sources of achievement. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(2), 460-465.
Banaji, M. (2010). Letter to a young social cognitionist. Social Cognition, 28(6), 667-674.
Banaji, M. R., & Heiphetz, L. (2010). Attitudes. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.) Handbook of social psychology (pp. 348-388). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Carney, D. R., Banaji, M. R., & Krieger, N. (2010). Implicit measures reveal evidence of personal discrimination. Self and Identity, 9(2), 162-176.
Dunham, Y., & Banaji, M. R. (2010). Platonic blindness and the challenge to understanding context. In B. Mesquita, L. Feldman-Barrett, & E. R. Smith (Eds.), The mind in context (pp. 201-213). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Hofmann, W., Deutsch, R., Lancaster, K., & Banaji, M. R. (2010). Cooling the heat of temptation: Mental self‐control and the automatic evaluation of tempting stimuli. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(1), 17-25.
Krieger, N., Carney, D., Lancaster, K., Waterman, P. D., Kosheleva, A., & Banaji, M. (2010). Combining explicit and implicit measures of racial discrimination in health research. American Journal of Public Health, 100(8), 1485-1492.
Nock, M. K., Park, J. M., Finn, C. T., Deliberto, T. L., Dour, H. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2010). Measuring the suicidal mind implicit cognition predicts suicidal behavior. Psychological Science, 21, 511-517.
Ogunnaike, O., Dunham, Y., & Banaji, M. R. (2010). The language of implicit preferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 999-1003.
Baron, A., & Banaji, M. (2009). Evidence of system justification in young children. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(6), 918-926.
Carney, D., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). The Implicit Association Test. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), The Cambridge dictionary of psychology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Caruso, E. M., Rahnev, D. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Using conjoint analysis to detect discrimination: revealing covert preferences from overt choices. Social Cognition, 27(1), 128-137.
Green, A. R., Carney, D. R., & Banaji, M.R.(2009). Response to Dawson and Arkes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(1), 141.
Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 17.
Mitchell, J. P., Ames, D. L., Jenkins, A. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Neural correlates of stereotype application. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(3), 594-604.
Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Implicit attitude. In P. Wilken, T. Bayne, & A. Cleeremans (Eds.), Oxford companion to consciousness (pp. 84-85). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Jost, J. T. (2009). The politics of intergroup attitudes. In J. T. Jost, A. C. Kay, & H. Thorisdottir (Eds.), The social and psychological bases of ideology and system justification (pp. 480-506). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Sriram, N., Lindner, N. M., Devos, T., Ayala, A., Bar-Anan, Y., Bergh, R., Cai, H., Gonsalkorale, K., Kesebir, S., Maliszewski, N., Neto, F., Olli, E., Park, J., Schnabel, K., Shiomura, K., Tulbure, B., Wiers, R. W., Somogyi, M., Akrami, N., Ekehammar, B., Vianello, M., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2009). National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(26), 10593-10597.
Shutts, K., Banaji, M. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2010). Social categories guide young children’s preferences for novel objects. Developmental Science, 13(4), 599-610.
Akalis, S. A., Banaji, M. R., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2008). Crime alert!: How thinking about a single suspect automatically shifts stereotypes toward an entire group. The DuBois Review: Social Science Essays and Research on Race, 5(2), 217-233.
Ames, D. L., Jenkins, A. C., Banaji, M. R., & Mitchell, J. P. (2008). Taking another person's perspective increases self-referential neural processing. Psychological Science, 19(7), 642-644.
Banaji, M. R. (2008). Foreword: The moral obligation to be intelligent. In E. Borgida & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Beyond common sense: Psychological science in the courtroom (pp. xxi-xxv). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Banaji, M. R. (2008). The science of satire. Chronicle of Higher Education, 54, B13.
Banaji, M. R., Baron, A. S., Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. (2008). The development of intergroup social cognition: Early emergence, implicit nature, and sensitivity to group status. In S. R. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 197-236). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2008). The development of implicit intergroup cognition. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12(7), 248-253.
Jost, J., & Banaji, M. R. (2008). Obituary: William James McGuire (1925-2007). American Psychologist, 63(4), 270-271.
Olson, K. R., Dunham, Y., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2008). Judgments of the lucky across development and culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5), 757.
Stanley, D., Phelps, E., & Banaji, M. (2008). The neural basis of implicit attitudes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(2), 164-170.
Banaji, M. R. (2007). Mahzarin R. Banaji on discovering experimental social psychology. In D. Myers (Ed.), Social psychology (9th ed., pp. 123). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Banaji, M. R. (2007). The limits of introspection. In J. Brockman (Ed.), What’s your dangerous idea? (pp. 263-264). New York, NY: Harper Collins (US version). Free Press (UK version)
Banaji, M. R. (2007). Unraveling beliefs. In J. Brockman (Ed.), What are you optimistic about? (pp. 266-268). New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Carney, D. R., Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association Test (IAT). In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology (pp. 463-464). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Children and social groups: A developmental analysis of implicit consistency in Hispanic Americans. Self & Identity, 6(2/3), 238-255.
Green, A. R., Carney, D. R., Pallin, D. J., Ngo, L. H., Raymond, K. L., Iezzoni, L. I., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for black and white patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(9), 1231-1238.
Lane, K. A., Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2007). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: IV. What we know (so far) about the method. In B. Wittenbrink & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Implicit measures of attitudes: procedures and controversies (pp. 59-102). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Lane, K. A., Kang, J. & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Implicit social cognition and law. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 3, 427-451.
Nock, M. K., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Assessment of self-injurious thoughts using a behavioral test. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(5), 820-823.
Nock, M. K., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Prediction of suicide ideation and attempts among adolescents using a brief performance-based test. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5), 707-715.
Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association Test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of higher mental processes (pp. 265-292). London, UK: Psychology Press.
Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., Olson, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18(1), 36-88.
Yamaguchi, S., Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Murakami, F., Chen, D., Shiomura, K., Kobayashi, C., Cai, H., & Krendl, A. (2007). Apparent universality of implicit positive self-esteem. Psychological Science, 18(6), 498-500.
Banaji, M. R. (2006). Science’s newest brain child, social neuroscience. Foreward to J. T. Cacioppo, P. S. Visser, & C. L. Pickett (Eds.), Social neuroscience: People thinking about thinking people (pp. vii-x). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). The development of implicit attitudes evidence of race evaluations from ages 6 and 10 and adulthood. Psychological Science, 17(1), 53-58.
Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). From American city to Japanese village: The omnipresence of implicit race attitudes. Child Development, 77, 1268-1281.
Gregg, A. P., Seibt, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). Easier done than undone: asymmetry in the malleability of implicit preferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1), 1-20.
Kang, J., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). Fair measures: A behavioral realist revision of ‘affirmative action’. California Law Review, 94, 1063-1118.
Levin, D. T., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). Distortions in the perceived lightness of faces: The role of race categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135(4), 501-512.
Mazzocco, P. J., Brock, T. C., Brock, G. J., Olson, K. R., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). The cost of being black: White Americans’ perceptions and the question of reparations. DuBois Review, 3(2), 261-297.
Mitchell, J. P., Cloutier, J., Banaji, M. R., & Macrae, C. N. (2006). Medial prefrontal dissociations during processing of trait diagnostic and nondiagnostic person information. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(1), 49-55.
Mitchell, J. P., Macrae, C. N., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). Dissociable medial prefrontal contributions to judgments of similar and dissimilar others. Neuron, 50(4), 655-663.
Mitchell, J. P., Mason, M. F., Macrae, C. N., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). Thinking about others: The neural substrates of social cognition. In J. T. Cacioppo, P. S. Visser, & C. L. Pickett (Eds.), Social neuroscience: People thinking about thinking people (pp. 63-82). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Olson, K. R., Banaji, M. R., Dweck, C. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Children’s biased evaluations of lucky versus unlucky people and their social groups. Psychological Science, 17(10), 845-846.

Phelps, E. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). Animal models of human attitudes: Integrations across behavioral, cognitive, and social neuroscience. In J. T. Cacioppo, P. S. Visser, & C. L. Pickett (Eds.), Social neuroscience: People thinking about thinking people (pp. 229-243). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bazerman, M. H., Chugh, D., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). When good people (seem to) negotiate in bad faith. Negotiation, 8, 1-4.
Chugh, D., Banaji, M. R., & Bazerman, M. H. (2005). Bounded ethicality as a psychological barrier to recognizing conflicts of interest. In D. A. Moore, D. M. Cain, G. Loewenstein, & M. H. Bazerman (Eds.), Conflicts of interest: Problems and solutions from law, medicine and organizational settings (pp.74-95). London, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Devos, T., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). American = white? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(3), 447-466.
Devos, T., Nosek, B. A., Hansen, J. J., Sutin, E., Ruhling, R. R., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2005). Explorer les attitudes et croyances implicites: lancement d'un site internet en langue française. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 66(2), 81-83.
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Klauer, C. (2005). Validity of the salience asymmetry interpretation of the IAT: Comment on Rothermund and Wentura. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(3), 420-425.
Lane, K. A., Mitchell, J. P., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Me and my group: Cultural status can disrupt cognitive consistency. Social Cognition, 23(4), 353-386.
Lemm, K. M., Dabady, M., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Gender picture priming: It works with denotative and connotative primes. Social Cognition, 23(3), 218-241.
Mitchell, J. P., Banaji, M. R., & Macrae, C. N. (2005a). General and specific contributions of the medial prefrontal cortex to knowledge about mental states. Neuroimage, 28(4), 757-762.
Mitchell, J. P., Banaji, M. R., & Macrae, C. N. (2005b). The link between social cognition and self-referential thought in the medial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(8), 1306-1315.
Mitchell, J. P., Macrae, N. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Forming impressions of people versus inanimate objects: Social-cognitive processing in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroimage, 26(1), 251-257.
Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: II. Method variables and construct validity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(2), 166-180.
Olsson, A., Ebert, J. P., Banaji, M. R., & Phelps, E. A. (2005). The role of social groups in the persistence of learned fear. Science, 309(5735), 785-787.
Aries, E., McCarthy, D., Salovey, P., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). A comparison of athletes and non-athletes at highly selective colleges: Academic performance and personal development. Research in Higher Education, 45(6), 577-602.
Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2004). No place for nostalgia in science: A response to Arkes and Tetlock. Psychological Inquiry, 15(4), 279-310.
Bazerman, M. H., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). The social psychology of ordinary ethical failures. Social Justice Research, 17(2), 111-115.
Cunningham, W. A., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Separable neural components in the processing of black and white faces. Psychological Science, 15(12), 806-813.
Cunningham, W. A., Nezlek, J. B., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Implicit and explicit ethnocentrism: Revisiting the ideologies of prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(10), 1332-1346.
Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25(6), 881-919.
Jost, J., Banaji, M. R., & Prentice, D. A. (2004). Perspectivist social psychology: The yin and yang of scientific progress. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Kraut, R., Olson, J., Banaji, M., Bruckman, A., Cohen, J., & Couper, M. (2004). Psychological research online: Report of Board of Scientific Affairs' Advisory Group on the Conduct of Research on the Internet. American Psychologist, 59(2), 105-117.
Mitchell, J. P., Macrae, C. N., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Encoding-specific effects of social cognition on the neural correlates of subsequent memory. The Journal of Neuroscience, 24(21), 4912-4917.
Walton, G. M., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Being what you say: The effect of essentialist linguistic labels on preferences. Social Cognition, 22(2), 193-213.
Banaji, M. R. (2003). The opposite of a great truth is also true: Homage of Koan #7. In J. Jost, D. Prentice, & M. R. Banaji (Eds.), The yin and yang of progress in social psychology: Perspectivism at work (pp. 127-140). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Banaji, M. R., Bazerman, M. H., & Chugh, D. (2003). How (un)ethical are you? Harvard Business Review, 81(12), 56-64.
Cunningham, W. A., Johnson, M. K., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Neural components of social evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 639-649.
Dasgupta, N., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). The first ontological challenge to the IAT: Attitude or mere familiarity?. Psychological Inquiry, 14(3-4), 238-243.
Devos, T., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Implicit self and identity. In M. Leary & J. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp.153-175). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 197-216.
Lane, K. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Evaluative group status and implicit attitudes toward the ingroup. In R. K. Ohme & M. Jarymowica (Eds.), Natura automatyzmow (pp. 25-30). Warszawa: WIP PAN & SWPS.
Mitchell, J. P., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Contextual variations in implicit evaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132(3), 455-469.
Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). (At least) two factors mediate the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes. In R. K. Ohme & M. Jarymowicz (Eds.), Natura automatyzmow (pp. 49-55). Warszawa: WIP PAN & SWPS.
Banaji, M. R. (2002). Social psychology of stereotypes. In N. Smelser & P. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences. New York, NY: Pergamon.
Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109(1), 3-25.
Levy, B., & Banaji, M. R. (2002). Implicit ageism. In T. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 49-75). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Math = male, me = female, therefore math ≠ me. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(1), 44-59.
Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). E‐research: Ethics, security, design, and control in psychological research on the internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 161-176.
Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Harvesting intergroup attitudes and stereotypes from a demonstration website. Group Dynamics, 6, 101-115.
Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit attitudes can be measured. In H. L. Roediger III, J. S. Nairne, I. E. Neath, & A. M. Surprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 117-150). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Banaji, M. R. (2001). Ordinary prejudice. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 14(Jan-Feb), 8-11.
Banaji, M. R., Lemm, K. M., & Carpenter, S. J. (2001). The social unconscious. In A. Tesser & N. Schwartz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual processes (pp. 134-158). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Cunningham, W. A., Preacher, K. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit attitude measures: Consistency, stability, and convergent validity. Psychological Science, 12(2), 163-170.
Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). The go/no-go association task. Social Cognition, 19(6), 625-664.
Banaji, M. R., & Bhaskar, R. (2000). Implicit stereotypes and memory: The bounded rationality of social beliefs. In D. L. Schacter & E. Scarry (Eds.), Memory, brain, and belief (pp.139-175). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dasgupta, N., McGhee, D. E., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2000). Automatic preference for white Americans: Eliminating the familiarity explanation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36(3), 316-328.
Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Rosier, M. (2000). Prologue to a unified theory of attitudes, stereotypes, and self-concept. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition (pp. 308-330). Cambridge University Press.
Park, J., & Banaji, M. R. (2000). Mood and heuristics: the influence of happy and sad states on sensitivity and bias in stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1005-1023.
Phelps, E. A., O'Connor, K. J., Cunningham, W. A., Funayama, E. S., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2000). Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(5), 729-738.
Banaji, M. R., & Hastie, R. (1999). Foreward. In W. J. McGuire (Ed.), Constructing social psychology: Creative and critical processes (pp. xiii-xv). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Dasgupta, N., Banaji, M. R., & Abelson, R. P. (1999). Group entitativity and group perception: Associations between physical features and psychological judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 991.
Farnham, S. D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1999). Implicit self-esteem. In D. Abrams & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Social identity and social cognition (pp. 230-248). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Glaser, J., & Banaji, M. R. (1999). When fair is foul and foul is fair: reverse priming in automatic evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(4), 669-687.
Hackman, J. R., & Banaji, M. R. (1999). Genuine social psychology: Investigations by mind and group. Contemporary Psychology, 44, 204-206.
Lemm, K., & Banaji, M. R. (1999). Unconscious beliefs and attitudes about women and men. In U. Pasero & F. Braun (Eds.), Wahrnehmung und Herstellung von Geschlecht (Perceiving and performing gender) (pp. 215-233). Opladen: Westdutscher Verlag.
Abelson, R. P., Dasgupta, N., Park, J., & Banaji, M. R. (1998). Perceptions of the collective other. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2(4), 243-250.
Banaji, M. R., & Dasgupta, N. (1998). The consciousness of social beliefs: A program of research on stereotyping and prejudice. In V. Y. Yzerbyt, G. Lories, & B. Dardenne (Eds.), Metacognition: Cognitive and social dimensions (pp. 157-170). London, UK: Sage Publications.
Banaji, M. R. (1997). Introductory comments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 449-450.
Banaji, M. R., Blair, I. V., & Glaser, J. (1997). Environments and unconscious processes. In R. S. Wyer (Ed.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 10, pp. 63-74). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Walsh, W. A., & Banaji, M. R. (1997). The collective self. In J. G. Snodgrass & R. L. Thompson (Eds.), The self across psychology: Self-recognition, self- awareness, and the self concept (pp. 193-213). New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
Banaji, M. R., & Hardin, C. D. (1996). Automatic stereotyping. Psychological Science, 7(3), 136-141.
Banaji, M. R., & Kihlstrom, J. F. (1996). The ordinary nature of alien abduction memories. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 132-135.
Blair, I. V., & Banaji, M. R. (1996). Automatic and controlled processes in stereotype priming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(6), 1142-1163.
Draine, S. C., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1996). Modeling unconscious gender bias in fame judgments: Finding the proper branch of the correct (multinomial) tree. Consciousness and Cognition, 5(1), 221-225.
Banaji, M. R., Blair, I. V., & Schwarz, N. (1995). Implicit memory and survey measurement. In N. Schwarz & S. Sudman (Eds.), Answering questions: Methodology for determining cognitive and communicative processes in survey research (pp. 347-372). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (1995). Implicit gender stereotyping in judgments of fame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(2), 181-198.
Banaji, M. R., Hamilton, D. L., & Sherman, S. J. (1995). In Memoriam: Thomas Marshall Ostrom (March 1, 1936-May 16, 1994). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 465-466.
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102(1), 4-27.
Banaji, M. R., & Crowder, R. G. (1994). Experimentation and its discontents. In P. E. Morris & M. Gruneberg (Eds.), Aspects of memory (2nd ed., pp. 296-308). New York, NY: Routledge.
Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (1994). Implicit stereotyping and prejudice. In M. P. Zanna & J. M. Olson (Eds.), The psychology of prejudice: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 7, pp. 55-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Banaji, M. R., & Hardin, C. (1994). Affect and memory in retrospective reports. In N. Schwartz & S. Sudman (Eds.), Autobiographical memory and the validity of retrospective reports (pp. 71-86). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Banaji, M. R., & Prentice, D. A. (1994). The self in social contexts. Annual Review of Psychology, 45(1), 297-332.
Gerrig, R., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). Language and thought. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Thinking and problem solving: Handbook of perception and cognition (2nd ed., pp. 233-261). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Jost, J. T., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). The role of stereotyping in system‐justification and the production of false consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33(1), 1-27. (Special issue on Social Stereotypes: Structure, function, and process.)
Banaji, M. R. (1993). The psychology of gender: A perspective on perspectives. In A. E. Beall & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of gender (pp. 251-273). New York, NY: Guilford.
Banaji, M. R., Hardin, C., & Rothman, A. J. (1993). Implicit stereotyping in person judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 272.
Hardin, C., & Banaji, M. R. (1993). The influence of language on thought. Social Cognition, 11(3), 277-308.
Banaji, M. R. (1992). Origins and organization of emotion [Review of the book ‘The cognitive structure of emotions’]. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 181-182.
Banaji, M. R. (1992). The lures of ecological realism. The Psychologist, 5, 448.
Banaji, M. R. (1992). The physical and mental bases of thought and the impending death of closet dualism [Review of the book ‘How to build a person: A prolegomenon’]. IEEE Expert, 7, 81-83.
LaFrance, M., & Banaji, M. R. (1992). Toward a reconsideration of the gender- emotion relationship. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Emotion and social behavior (Review of Personality and Social Psychology) (Vol. 14, pp. 178-201). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Banaji, M. R. (1991). Social psychology under analysis [Review of the book 'The state of social psychology: Issues, themes, and controversies']. Contemporary Psychology, 36, 781-782.
Banaji, M. R., & Crowder, R. G. (1991). Some everyday thoughts on ecologically valid methods. American Psychologist, 46(1), 78-79.
Gerrig, R. J., & Banaji, M. R. (1991). Names and the construction of identity: Evidence from Toni Morrison's Tar Baby. Poetics, 20(2), 173-192.
Banaji, M. R., & Crowder, R. G. (1989). The bankruptcy of everyday memory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1185.
Banaji, M. R., & Steele, C. M. (1989). Alcohol and self-evaluation: Is a social cognition approach beneficial?. Social Cognition, 7(2), 137-151.
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1989). The self as a memory system: Powerful, but ordinary. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 41-54.
Loftus, E. F., & Banaji, M. R. (1989). Memory modification and the role of the media. In V. A. Gheorghiu, P. Netter, H. J. Eysenck, & R. Rosenthal (Eds.), Suggestibility: Theory and research (pp. 279-293). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Greenwald, A. G., Bellezza, F. S., & Banaji, M. R. (1988). Is self-esteem a central ingredient of the self-concept?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14(1), 34-45.
Hunt, E., & Banaji, M. R. (1988). The Whorfian hypothesis revisited: A cognitive science view of linguistic and cultural effects on thought. In J. Berry, S. Irvine, & E. B. Hunt (Eds.), Indigenous cognition: Functioning in cultural context (pp. 57-84). Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Loftus, E. F., Banaji, M. R., Schooler, J. W., & Foster, R. A. (1987). Who remembers what? Gender differences in memory. Michigan Quarterly Review, 26, 64-85.
Bellezza, F. S., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1986). Words high and low in pleasantness as rated by male and female college students. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 18(3), 299-303
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