BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MESOPOTAMIAN MYTHOLOGY AND CREATION MYTHS

 

Paul-Alain Beaulieu

Dept. of NELC

Harvard University

 

Collections of Texts in Translation.

 

BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux: Jean BottŽro and Samuel Noah Kramer, Lorsque les dieux faisaient l=homme (Paris, 1989) [French translation of Sumerian and Akkadian mythological texts with abundant notes and commentaries].

 

BottŽro, Mythes; Jean BottŽro, Mythes et rites de Babylone (Paris, 1985; Slatkine Reprints, Genve, 1996) [contains studies of Enuma elish and minor Akkadian creation stories with translations].

 

Dalley, Myths: Stephanie Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia (Oxford/New York, 1991) [English translations with brief introductions].

 

ETCSL: Web site of the Project "Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature" (Oxford University): http://www‑etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/ (or type ETCSL in Google Search Engine). Contains full editions (transliterations, translations, lists of manuscripts) with bibliography of all classical Sumerian literary compositions. Each composition has a number, therefore references below are given as ETCSL followed by that number. The composition can be found by clicking the icon "Browse by Number" on the Web site.

 

Clifford, Creation: Richard J. Clifford, Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible (The Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 26; Washington D.C., 1994) [partial translations of creation accounts with commentary].

 

Foster, Muses: Benjamin R. Foster, Before the Muses, 2 vols. (Bethesda, Maryland, 1993) [English translations of a large number of Akkadian literary texts, with notes, bibliographies. lists of manuscripts].

 

Hallo/Younger, Context: William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., eds., The Context of Scripture, vol.1. Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (Brill: Leiden, Boston, Kšln, 2000) [selection of Sumerian and Akkadian literary and mythological compositions in translation].

 

Jacobsen, Harps: Thorkild Jacobsen, The Harps that Once .... Sumerian Poetry in Translation (Yale University Press: New Haven and London 1987) [selections from Classical Sumerian literature in translation with brief introductions].

 


Labat, Religions: RenŽ Labat, AndrŽ Cacquot, Muaurice Sznycer et Maurice Vieyra, Les religions du Proche-Orient asiatique (Fayard/Deno‘l; Paris, 1970) [French translations, with introductions, of selected Ancient Near Eastern religious literature].

 

TUAT III/3: Willem H.Ph. Ršmer and Dietz Otto Edzard, Mythen und Epen I (Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, Band III, Weisheitstexte, Mythen und Epen; Gerd Mohn, Gutersloh, 1993) [German translations of select Sumerian compositions].

 

TUAT III/4: Karl Hecker, W.G. Lambert, Gerfrid G.W. MŸller, Wolfram von Soden and Ahmet †nal, Mythen und Epen II (Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, Band III, Weisheitstexte, Mythen und Epen; Gerd Mohn, Gutersloh, 1994) [German translations of select Akkadian and Hittite compositions].

 

General Studies

 

Anthony Green, "Mythologie. B.I. In der mesopotamischen Kunst," in Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen ArchŠologie 8 (1993-1997) 572-586.

 

A. Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis (Chicago, 1951) [also contains English translations of Akkadian creation myths].

 

Wolfgang Heimpel, "Mythologie. A.I. In Mesopotamien," in Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen ArchŠologie 8 (1993-1997) 537-564.

 

Wayne Horowitz, Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography (Mesopotamian Civilizations 8; Winona Lake, Indiana, 1998).

 

Wilfred G. Lambert, "Myth and Mythmaking in Sumer and Akkad," in J.M. Sasson, ed., Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, 4 vols. (New York, 1995).

 

Wilfred G. Lambert, "The Cosmology of Sumer and Babylon," in C. Blacker and M. Loewe, Ancient Cosmologies (London, 1975), pp. 42-65.

 

Francesca Rochberg, "Mesopotamian Cosmology," in N.S. Hetherington, ed., Cosmology. Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives (New York and London; 1993), pp. 37-52.

 

Marie-Joseph Seux, "La crŽation du monde et de l=homme dans la littŽrature sumŽro-akkadienne," in F. Blanquart, ed., La crŽation dans l=Orient ancien (Lectio Divina 27; Paris, 1987).

 

ke Sjšberg, "In the Beginning," in T. Abusch, ed., Riches Hidden in Secret Places. Ancient Near Eastern studies in memory of Thorkild Jacobsen (Winona Lake, IN, 2002), pp. 229-247 [study of three early cosmological texts].

 


J.J.A. van Dijk, "Le motif cosmique dans la pensŽe sumŽrienne," Acta Orientalia 28/1-2 (1964), pp. 1-59.

 

List of Mythographic Sources.

 

1. Sumerian

1.1 "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld"

1.2. "The Debate Between Tree and Reed"

1.3. "The Debate Between Summer and Winter"

1.4. "The Debate Between Ewe and Wheat" (or "Sheep and Grain")

1.5. "The Debate Between Bird and Fish"

1.6. "Enki and the World Order"

1.7. "Enki and Ninma"

1.8. "Enki and Ninhursag" ("The Dilmun Myth")

1.9. "How grain came to Sumer"

1.10. "The Eridu Genesis" ("The Flood story")

1.11. "The Time Before Creation" (NBC 11108 and AO 4153)

1.12. "Enki's Journey to Nibru"

1.13. "The Song of the Hoe" ("In praise of the Pickaxe")

1.14. "The Rulers of Lagash"

1.15. "The Barton Cylinder"

 

2. Akkadian

2.1. Atrahasis

2.2. Enuma Elish ("The Babylonian Epic of Creation")

2.3. "The Dunnu Theogony" ("The Harab Myth")

2.4. "The Incantation of the Worm" ("Against Toothache")

2.5. "The creatress river"

2.6. Prayers of the kalž priest

2.7. "The Debate Between Two Insects"

2.8. The flood story in Gilgamesh

2.9. The two incantations of the ergot

2.10. Prayer to dedicate the foundation brick of a temple

2.11. "The Chaldean Genesis" ("The Foundation of Eridu")

2.12. "The Debate Between Palm and Tamarisk"

2.13. "The Debate Between Ox and Horse"

2.14. "The Creation of Man and King"

2.15. A medical incantation

2.16. The fragment K 7067

 

3. Bilingual and Lexical

3.1. Prologue of astrological treatise Enuma Anu Enlil

3.2. KAR 4

3.3. Lugale


3.4. God Lists

 

4. Greek

4.1. The Babyloniaka of Berossus

 

Bibliography of Mythographic Sources

 

1. Sumerian

 

1.1. "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 478-479; Clifford, Creation, pp. 23-25; ETCSL 1.8.1.4.

 

A.R. George, The Epic of Gilgamesh. A New Translation (New York, 1999), pp. 175-195.

 

Aaron Shaffer, Sumerian Sources of the Tablet XII of the Epic of Gilgamesh, University of Pennsylvania: Philadelphia (Ph.D dissertation, 1963) (commentary, translation, composite text, handcopy)

 

J.J. Tournay and A. Shaffer, L'ŽpopŽe de Gilgamesh (Paris, 1994) 249-274 (translation)

 

1.2. "The Debate Between Tree and Reed"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 479-481; Clifford, Creation, pp. 25-27; ETCSL (not available yet); TUAT III/3, pp. 357-360 (by W.H.Ph. Ršmer).

 

1.3. "The Debate Between Summer and Winter"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 481-483; ETCSL 5.3.3; Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 584-588.

 

J.J.A. van Dijk, La Sagesse sumŽro-accadienne (Brill: Leiden, 1953) 42-57 (composite text, translation, commentary; partial edition).

 

1.4. "The Debate Between Ewe and Wheat" (or "Sheep and Grain")

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 511-514; Clifford, Creation, pp. 45-46; ETCSL 5.3.2; Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 575-578.

 

Bendt Alster and Herman L.J. Vanstiphout, "Lahar and Ashnan. Presentation and Analysis of a Sumerian Disputation," Acta Sumerologica 9 (1987) 1-43 (commentary, composite text, translation)

 

1.5. "The Debate Between Bird and Fish"


Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 517-520; Clifford, Creation, pp. 38-39; ETCSL 5.3.5;  Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 581-584.

 

Samuel Noah Kramer, "Sumerische Litteraire Teksten uit Ur," Phoenix 10 (1964) 99-108 (translation, commentary).

 

Th.J.H. Krispijn, "Dierenfabels in het oude Mesopotami‘", in Idema, E.L. et al. (ed.), Mijn naam is haas. Dierenverhalen in verschillende culturen (Ambo: Baarn, 1993), pp. 131-148 (translation, commentary).

 

1.6. "Enki and the World Order"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 165-188; Clifford, Creation, pp. 34-35; ETCSL 1.1.3; TUAT III/3, pp. 402-420 (partial, by W.H.Ph. Ršmer: lines 248-273, and 308-447).

 

C.A. Benito, "Enki and Ninmah" and "Enki and the World Order"  (Ph.D Dissertation, Philadelphia 1969), pp. 77-160 (translation, composite text, commentary).

 

S.N. Kramer and J. Maier, Myths of Enki, the Crafty God (Oxford University Press: New York/Oxford 1989), pp. 38-56 (translation, commentary).

 

1.7. "Enki and Ninma"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 188-198; Clifford, Creation, pp. 39-42; ETCSL 1.1.2;  Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 516-518; Jacobsen, Harps, pp. 151-166 ("The Birth of Man"); TUAT III/3, pp. 386-401 (by W.H.Ph. Ršmer).

 

C.A. Benito, "Enki and Ninmah" and "Enki and the World Order"  (Ph.D Dissertation, Philadelphia 1969), pp. 77-160 (translation, composite text, commentary), pp. 1-76 (translation, composite text, commentary).

 

S.N. Kramer and J. Maier, Myths of Enki, the Crafty God (Oxford University Press: New York/Oxford 1989), pp. 13-14, 31-37, 124, 132-133, 176 (commentary, translation).

 

1.8. "Enki and Ninhursag" ("The Dilmun Myth")

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 151-164; Clifford, Creation, pp. 35-38; ETCSL 1.1.1; Jacobsen, Harps, pp. 181-204; TUAT III/3, pp. 363-386 (by W.H.Ph. Ršmer).

 

P. Attinger, "Enki et Ninhursaga," Zeitschrift fŸr Assyriologie 74 (1984) 1-52 (composite text, score transliteration, French translation, commentary).

 

1.9. "How grain came to Sumer"


Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 515-517; Clifford, Creation, p. 47 (top of page); ETCSL  1.7.6; TUAT III/3, pp. 360-363 (by W.H.Ph. Ršmer).

 

Franoise Bruchweiler, Inanna: la dŽesse triomphante et vaincue dans la cosmologie sumŽrienne. Recherche lexicographique (Les cahiers du CEPOA 4; Editions Peeters: Leuven 1987), pp. 54-57 (composite text, translation, commentary).

 

1.10. "The Eridu Genesis" ("The Flood Story")

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 564-567; Clifford, Creation, pp. 42-45; ETCSL 1.7.4; Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 513-515; Jacobsen, Harps, pp. 145-150;  TUAT III/3, pp. 448-458 (by W.H.Ph. Ršmer).

 

Thorkild Jacobsen, "The Eridu Genesis," Journal of Biblical Literature 100 (1981) 513-529 (composite text, translation, commentary).

 

Samuel Noah Kramer, "The Sumerian Deluge Myth. Reviewed and Revised," Anatolian Studies 33 (1983) 115-121 (translation, commentary)

 

W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard, Atra-Hasis: the Babylonian Story of the Flood (Clarendon Press: Oxford 1969), pp. 138-145 (translation, commentary, score transliteration; by M. Civil)

 

Giovanni Pettinato, Das altorientalische Menschenbild und die sumerischen und akkadischen Schšpfungsmythen (Winter: Heidelberg 1971) (translation, commentary, composite text, ll. 37-50; 84-100).

 

1.11. "The Time Before Creation" (NBC 11108 and AO 4153)

 

Translations: Clifford, Creation, pp. 27-29 (NBC 11108 only); TUAT III/3, pp. 353-356 (both texts, by W.H.Ph. Ršmer).

 

J.J.A. van Dijk, "Existe-t-il un >Pome de la crŽation= sumŽrien?," in B.L. Eichler et al., ed., Kramer Anniversary Volume: Cuneiform Studies in Honor of Samuel Noah Kramer (Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1976), pp. 125-133 (edition and French translation of NBC 11108, with discussion of creation myths in Sumer).

 

1.12. "Enki's Journey to Nibru"

 

Translations: Clifford, Creation, pp. 29-30 ("Hymn to E=engura, the temple of Enki in Eridu"); ETCSL 1.1.4.

 

Abdul-Hadi A. Al-Fouadi, The Journeys of the Gods (University of Pennsylvania, 1969; Ph.D dissertation) [composite text, translation, commentary, photograph]


Adam Falkenstein and Wolfram von Soden, Sumerische und akkadische Hymnen und Gebete (Artemis: ZŸrich/Stuttgart, 1953) (translation, by A. Falkenstein)

 

1.13. "The Song of the Hoe" ("In praise of the Pickaxe")

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 508-511; Clifford, Creation, pp. 30-32; ETCSL 5.5.4;  Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 511-513.

 

Miguel Civil, "Review of CT 44," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 28 (1969), p. 70 (partial translation, commentary).

 

Dietz Otto Edzard, "U 7804 // UET VI/1 26: "Gedicht von der Hacke"," in A.R. George and I.L. Finkel, eds., Wisdom, Gods and Literature: Studies in Assyriology in Honour of W. G. Lambert (Eisenbrauns: Winona Lake, 2000), pp. 131-135 (score transliteration, commentary, handcopy, transliteration of duplicate ms.).

 

Gertrud Farber, ""Das Lied von der Hacke", ein literarischer Spass?", in H. Klengel and J. Renger, eds., Landwirtschaft im Alten Orient: ausgewŠhlte VortrŠge der XLI. Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale Berlin, 4.-8.7.1994 (Berliner BeitrŠge zum Vorderen Orient, 18; Dietrich Reimer Verlag: Berlin, 1999), pp. 369-373 (commentary).

 

Thorkild Jacobsen, "Sumerian Mythology, a Review Article", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 5 (1946), p. 134 (partial translation, commentary).

 

Giovanni Pettinato, Das altorientalische Menschenbild und die sumerischen und akkadischen Schšpfungsmythen (Winter: Heidelberg, 1971), pp. 82-85 (partial translation).

 

C. Wilcke, "Hacke - B. Philologisch," in Reallexikon der Assyriologie 4 (1972), pp. 33-38 and 36-38 (commentary, partial translation).

 

1.14. "The Rulers of Lagash"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 520-525. Clifford, Creation, pp. 47-48; ETCSL 2.1.2.

 

E. Sollberger, "The Rulers of Lagash," Journal of Cuneiform Studies 21 (1967), pp. 279-291 (score transliteration, translation, handcopy, commentary).

 

1.15 "The Barton Cylinder"

 

Translations: Clifford, Creation, p.25 (with references omitted).

 

B. Alster and A. Westenholz, "The Barton Cylinder," Acta Sumerologica 16 (1994), pp. 15-46.


 

2. Akkadian

 

2.1. Atrahasis

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 527-601 ("La grande gense babylonienne"); Clifford, Creation, pp. 74-82 (partial); Dalley, Myths, pp. 1-38; Foster, Muses, pp. 158-201; Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 450-453; Labat, Religions, pp. 26-36; TUAT III/4, pp. 612-645 (by W. von Soden).

 

Note: the fragment of a deluge story from Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) and which names Atra-hasis possibly belongs here (BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 567-568).

 

W.G. Lambert and A. Millard, Atraasis. The Babylonian Story of the Flood (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1970).

 

2.2. Enuma Elish ("The Babylonian Epic of Creation")

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 602-679; Clifford, Creation, pp. 82-93 (partial); Dalley, Myths, pp. 228-277; Foster, Muses, pp. 351-402; Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 390-402; Labat, Religions, pp. 36-70; TUAT III/4, pp. 565-602 (by W.G. Lambert).

 

Jean BottŽro, Mythes et rites de Babylone (Paris, 1985; Slatkine Reprints, Genve, 1996), pp. 113-162 ("L=ŽpopŽe de la crŽation") [study].

 

L.W. King, Enuma Elish: The Seven Tablets of Creation (London, 1902) [cuneiform texts, transliteration, translation, commentary].

 

R. Labat, Le pome babylonien de la crŽation (Paris, 1935) [transliteration, French translation, commentary].

 

W.G. Lambert, Enuma Eliš, The Babylonian Epic of Creation (Oxford, 1966) [composite cuneiform text only; full edition in preparation].

 

J.B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd ed. (Princeton, 1969) 60-72 [translated by E.A. Speiser] and 501-502 [additions by A.K. Grayson]

 

J.-M. Durand, "Le mythologme du combat entre le dieu de l=orage et la mer en MŽsopotamie," in Mari, Annales de recherches interdisciplinaires. 7 (Paris, 1993) 41-61.

 

Th. Jacobsen, The Treasures of Darkness. A History of Mesopotamian Religion (New Haven/London, 1976) 167-191.

 


W.G. Lambert, "Ninurta Mythology in the Babylonian Epic of Creation," in Keilschriftliche Literaturen, XXXII. RAI (Berlin, 1986) 55-60

 

F.N.H. al-Rawi and A.R. George, "Tablets from the Sippar Library II: Tablet II of the Babylonian Creation Epic," Iraq 52 (1990) 149-57 [Tablet II: cuneiform text, transliteration, translation, brief commentary]

 

B. Landsberger and J.V. Kinnier Wilson, "The Fifth Tablet of Enuma Eliš," JNES 20 (1961) 154-79 [Tablet V: transliteration, translation, commentary]

 

F.N.H. al-Rawi and J.A. Black, "A New Manuscript of En‹ma eliš, Tablet VI," JCS 46 (1994) 131-139.

 

2.3. "The Dunnu Theogony" ("The Harab Myth")

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 472-478; Clifford, Creation, pp. 94-97; Dalley, Myths, pp. 278-281; Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 402-404; TUAT III/4, pp. 610-611 (by K. Hecker).

 

Th. Jacobsen, The Harab Myth (Sources from the Ancient Near East, vol.2, fasc.3; Undena Publications, Malibu, 1984) [transliteration, translation, commentary].

 

2.4. "The Incantation of the Worm" ("Against Toothache")

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 483-486 (with study); BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 281-284 (with study); Clifford, Creation, pp. 55-56; Labat, Religions, p. 78; Foster, Muses, p. 878; TUAT III/4, pp. 603-604 (by K. Hecker).

 

2.5. "The Creatress River"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 486-487; BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 288-291; Clifford, Creation, pp. 58-59.

 

2.6. Prayer of the kalž priest

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 488-493; BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 293-299 (with study); Clifford, Creation, pp. 60-61; Labat, Religions, pp. 76-77; TUAT III/4, pp. 604-605 (by K. Hecker).

 

2.7. "The Debate Between Two Insects"

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 495-496; BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 313-316 (with study); Clifford, Creation, pp. 65-66.

 

2.8. The flood story in Gilgamesh (Tablet XI of the Epic)

 


Translations: Dalley, Myths, pp. 109-120; Hallo/Younger, Context, pp. 458-460; Labat, Religions, pp. 212-222; TUAT III/4, pp. 728-738 (by K. Hecker).

 

A.R. George, The Epic of Gilgamesh. A New Translation (New York, 1999), pp. 88-99.

 

A.R. George, The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic. Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts, 2 vols. (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 700-725 [edition, translation].

 

2.9. The two incantations of the ergot

 

Translations: BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 285-288 (with study); Clifford, Creation, pp. 56-58; Foster, Muses, p. 854; Labat, Religions, p.79.

 

2.10. Prayer to dedicate the foundation brick of a temple

 

Translation: BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 299-301; Clifford, Creation, pp. 61-62.

 

2.11. "The Chaldean Genesis" ("The Foundation of Eridu")

 

Translation: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 497-502 ("Marduk, crŽateur du monde"); BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 301-313 (with study: "Prire pour la fondation d=un temple"); Clifford, Creation, pp. 62-65; Labat, Religions, pp. 74-76 ("La cosmologie chaldŽenne"); TUAT III/4, pp. 608-609 (by K. Hecker).

 

2.12. "The Debate Between Palm and Tamarisk"

 

Translation: Clifford, Creation, pp. 66-67.

 

2.13. "The Debate Between Ox and Horse"

 

Translation: Lambert, BWL, pp. 175-185 (full edition; a few remaining words at the beginning indicate that there was originally a mythological introduction).

 

2.14. "The Creation of Man and King"

 

Translation: Clifford, Creation, pp. 69-71.

 

W.R. Mayer, "Ein Mythos von der Erschaffung des Menschen und des Kšnigs," Orientalia 56 (1987) 55-68 (editio princeps).

 

2.15. A medical incantation

 

Translation: BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 291-293 (with study); Clifford, Creation, p. 59.

 


2.16. The fragment K 7067

 

Translation: BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 319-321 (with study).

 

3. Bilingual and Lexical

 

3.1. Prologue of astrological treatise Enuma Anu Enlil

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 493-495; BottŽro, Mythes, pp. 316-319 (with study); Clifford, Creation, pp. 67-69.

 

Ulla Koch-Westenholz, Mesopotamian Astrology. An Introduction to Babylonian and Assyrian Celestial Divination (CNI Publ. 19; Copenhagen, 1995), pp. 76-78 (transliteration, translation)

 

3.2. KAR 4

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 508; Clifford, Creation, pp. 49-51; TUAT III/4, pp. 606-608 (by K. Hecker).

 

3.3. Lugale

 

Translations: BottŽro/Kramer, Dieux, pp. 339-377; ETCSL 1.6.2 ("The exploits of Ninurta"); Jacobsen, Harps, pp. 233-272;  TUAT III/3, pp. 434-448 (partial, by W.H.Ph. Ršmer).

 

Note: this composition also exists in unilingual Sumerian version.

 

J.J.A. van Dijk, LUGAL UD ME-LçM-bi NIR-GçL. Le rŽcit Žpique et didactique des travaux de Ninurta, du dŽluge et de la nouvelle crŽation. 2 vols. (Brill: Leiden, 1983) [composite text, translation, photograph, handcopy, score transliteration, commentary].

 

S. Seminara, La versione accadica del lugal‑e: la tecnica babilonese della traduzione dal sumerico e le sue regole. Materiali per il vocabolario sumerico 8 (Rome, 2001) [full edition with commentary; Akkadian vesion only].

 

3.4. God Lists.

 

Translations: Clifford, Creation, pp.16-22.

 

4. Greek

 

4.1. The Babyloniaka of Berossus

 


S.M. Burstein, The Babyloniaca of Berossus (SANE I/5; Malibu, 1978) [English translation and commentary].

 

G. Komoroczy, "Berosos and the Mesopotamian Literature," Acta Antiqua Academica Scientiarum Hungarica 21 (1973) 125-152.

 

A. Kuhrt, "Berossus= Babyloniaka and Seleucid Rule in Babylonia," in A. Kuhrt and S. Sherwin-White, eds., Hellenism and the East: Interactions of Greek and Non-Greek Civilizations from Syria to Central Asia after Alexander (London, 1987) 53-56.

 

P. Schnabel, Berossos und die babylonisch-hellenistische Literatur (Leipzig, 1923).

 

G.P. Verbrugghe and J.M. Wickersham, Berossos and Manetho, Introduced and Translated. Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1996).