Curriculum Vitae

Born March 21, 1932; two children; U.S. citizen
A.B. Harvard, 1953; Ph.D. Harvard, 1961

Academic Awards:   
Guggenheim Fellowship, 1970-71
NEH Fellowship, 1974-75
Member, Council of the American Political Science Association, 1980-82, 2004
Fellow, National Humanities Center, 1982
Member, Board of Foreign Scholarships, USIA, 1987-89
Member, Advisory Council, National Endowment for the Humanities, 1991-94
President, New England Political Science Association, 1993-4
Joseph R. Levenson Teaching Award, 1993
The Sidney Hook Memorial Award, 2002
National Humanities Medal, 2004
Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities, 2007

Present Positions:
 William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Government, 1993 to date
Carol G. Simon Senior Felllow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University

Former Positions:
Frank G. Thomson Professor of Government, 1988-93
Professor of Government, 1969-88
Chairman, Department of Government, 1973-77
Associate Professor, Harvard University, 1966-69
Assistant Professor, Harvard University, 1964-66
Lecturer, Harvard University, 1962-64
Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, 1960-62


Statesmanship and Party Government, A Study of Burke and Bolingbroke, University of Chicago Press, 1965.

The Spirit of Liberalism, Harvard University Press, 1978.

Machiavelli's New Modes and Orders:  A Study of the Discourses on Livy, Cornell University Press, 1979; reprinted, University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Selected Letters of Edmund Burke, edited with an introduction entitled "Burke's Theory of Political Practice," University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Machiavelli's The Prince; a new translation with introduction, University of Chicago Press, 1985; second edition, with corrections and a glossary, 1998.

Machiavelli's Florentine Histories (with Laura F. Banfield), a new translation with introduction, Princeton University Press, 1988.

Taming the Prince; The Ambivalence of Modern Executive Power, The Free Press, 1989; paperback edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Machiavel, L'art de la guerre, Introduction; Flammarion, 1991.

America's Constitutional Soul, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Machiavelli’s Virtue, University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Niccolò Machiavelli, Discourses on Livy (with Nathan Tarcov), a new translation with introduction, University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (with Delba Winthrop), a new translation with introduction, University of Chicago Press, 2000.

A Student’s Guide to Political Philosophy.  ISI Books, 2001.

Manliness.  Yale University Press,  2006.  Italian trans. Virilità. Rizzoli, 2006.



"Sir Lewis Namier Considered," Journal of British Studies, Vol. 2 (1962), pp. 28-55.

"Sir Lewis Namier Again Considered," Journal of British Studies, Vol. 3 (1964), pp. 109-119.

"Party Government and the Settlement of 1688." American Political Science Review, Vol. 58 (1964), pp. 933-946.

"Rationality and Representation in Burke's Bristol Speech," Nomos, vol. VII, (1964), "Rational Decision," C.J. Friedrich, ed., pp. 197-216.

"Whether Party Government is Inevitable," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 80 (1965), pp 517-542.

"Burke and Machiavelli on Principles in Politics," in Edmund Burke:  The Enlightenment and the Modern World, P.H. Stanlis, ed..  Detroit, Mich.:  University of Detroit Press, 1967, pp. 49-79.

Review Article of J.R. Pole's Political Representation in England and the Origins of the American Republic.  Studies in Burke and His Time, Vol. 8 (1967), pp. 793-799. 

"Burke on Christianity," Studies in Burke and His Time, Vol. 9 (1968), pp. 864-865.

"Modern and Medieval Representation," Nomos, vol. XI (1968), in "Representation," J.R. Pennock and J. Chapman eds., pp. 55-82.

"Impartial Representation," in Representation and Misrepresentation, R.A. Goldwin, ed., Chicago, Il. :  Rand Mcnally, 1968, pp. 91-114.

"Machiavelli's New Regime," Italian Quarterly, vol. XIII (1970), pp. 63-95.

"Disguised Liberalism," Public Policy, Vol. 18 (1970), pp. 605-619.

"Hobbes and the Science of Indirect Government," The American Political Science Review, March 1971, pp. 97-110.

"Thomas Jefferson," in M. Frisch and R. Stevens eds., American Political Thought, New York, 1971, pp. 23-50; republished in H.C. Mansfield, Jr., ed., Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson, "Crofts Classics," 1978.

"Party and Sect in Machiavelli's Florentine Histories," in Martin Fleisher, ed., Machiavelli and the Nature of Political Thought, New York:  Athenaeum, 1972, pp. 209-266.

"Necessity in the Beginning of Cities," in A. Parel, ed., The Political Calculus:  Essays in Machiavelli's Philosophy, Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1972, pp. 101-126.

"Sound Advice from Yale," Polity, Vol. 5 (1972), pp. 95-111.

"Defending Liberalism," The Alternative, April 1974.

"Liberal Democracy as a Mixed Regime," The Alternative, June 1975.

"The Right of Revolution," Daedalus, Vol. 105 (1976), pp. 151-162.

"Strauss's Machiavelli," Political Theory, Nov. 1975, pp. 372-384.

"The Prestige of Public Employment," in A.L. Chickering, ed., Public Employee Unions, Institute for Contemporary Studies, San Francisco, California, 1967, pp. 35-50.

"Representation:  The Perennial Issues," with Robert Scigliano, pamphlet published by the American Political Science Association, 1978, 80 pp.

"The Media World and Democratic Representation," Government and Opposition, Vol 14 (1979), pp. 318-334.

"On the Political Character of Property in Locke," in A. Kontos, ed., Powers, Possessions and Freedom:  Essays in Honour of C.B.MacPherson, Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1979, pp. 23-38.

"The Ambivalence of Executive Power," in J. Bessette and J. Tulis, eds., The Presidency in the Constitutional Order, Baton Rouge, La.:  Louisiana State University Press, 1981, pp. 314-334.

"Marx on Aristotle:  Freedom, Money and politics," Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 34 (1980), pp. 351-367.

"The American Election:  Towards Constitutional Democracy?", Government and Opposition, Vol. 16 (1981), pp. 3-18.

"Machiavelli's Political Science," American Political Science Review, Vol. 75(1981), pp. 293-305.

"The Anti-Power Ethic," review article in Government and Opposition, Vol. 17 (1982), pp. 362-369.

"The American Congressional Election," Government and Opposition, Vol. 18 (1983), pp. 144-156.

"The Forms and Formalities of Liberty," The Public Interest, No. 70 (Winter 1983), pp. 121-131. 

"On the Impersonality of the Modern State:  A Comment on Machiavelli's Use of Stato," American Political Science Review, Vol. 77 (1983), pp. 849-857.

"The Absent Executive in Aristotle's Politics," in P. Schramm and T. Silver, Natural Right and Political Right, Carolina Academic Press, 1984, pp. 169-196.

"The Underhandedness of Affirmative Action," National Review, May 4, 1984, pp. 26-34.

"The Teaching of Citizenship," PS, Spring 1984, pp. 211-215.

"The American Election:  Entitlements Versus Opportunity," Government and Opposition, Vol. 20 (1985).

"Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law," Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Vol. 8 (1985), pp. 323-326.

"Constitutional Government:  The Soul of Modern Democracy," The Public Interest, No. 86 (Winter 1987), pp. 53-64.

"Hobbes on Liberty and Executive Power," in G. Feaver and F. Rosen, eds., Lives, Liberties and the Public Good, London, 1987, pp. 27-43.

Review Article of George Gilder's Men and Marriage; Policy Review, Winter 1987, pp. 76-78.

"Affirmative Action Versus The Constitution," in W. Lawson Taitte, ed., A Melting Pot or a Nation of Minorities, University of Texas at Dallas, 1986, pp. 91-110.

"Gouvernement représentatif et pouvoir exécutif," Commentaire, Winter 1987, pp. 664-672.

"Republicanizing the Executive," in Charles R. Kesler, ed. Saving the Revolution; The Federalist Papers and the American Founding, New York:  The Free Press, 1987, pp. 168-184.

"The Modern Doctrine of Executive Power," Presidential Studies Quarterly, Spring 1987, pp. 237-252.

"The Constitution and Modern Social Science," The Center Magazine, September 1986, pp. 42-53.

"Choice and Consent in the American Experiment," The Intercollegiate Review, Spring 1987, pp. 19-23.

"The Religious Issue and the Origin of Modern Constitutionalism," in Robert A. Goldwin and Art Kaufman, eds., How Does the Constitution Protect Religious Freedom?, Washington, D.C.:  American Enterprise Institute, 1978, pp. 1-14.

"The Forms of Liberty," in Fred E. Baumann, ed., Democratic Capitalism? Essays in Search of a Concept, Charlottesville, VA:  University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 1-21.

"Pride versus Interest in American Conservatism Today," Government and Opposition, Vol. 22 (1987), pp. 194-205.

"Machiavelli and the Modern Executive," in Catherine H. Zuckert, ed., Understanding the Political Spirit, New Haven:  Yale University Press, 1988, pp. 88-110.

"Democracy and the Great Books," an exchange with Richard Rorty; The New Republic, April 4, 1988.  Also published in French, Commentaire, Summer 1988, pp. 492-6.

"The Revival of Constitutionalism," in James W. Muller, ed., The Revival of Constitutionalism.  Lincoln, Nebraska:  Nebraska University Press, 1989, pp. 214-27.

"Constitutional Fideism," review article in Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities, vol. 1 (1988), pp. 181-86.

"The American Election:  Another Reagan Triumph," Government and Opposition, Vol. 24 (1989), pp. 28-38.

"The State of Harvard," review article in The Public Interest, No. 101 (Fall 1990), pp. 113-123.

"Social Science and the Constitution," in Allan Bloom, ed., Confronting the Constitution, American Enterprise Institute Press, 1990, pp. 411-436.

“The Vision Thing," article in Times Literary Supplement, February 7, 1992, pp. 3-4.

“Executive Power and the Passion for Virtue,” in Studies in American Political Development, Vol. 6 (Spring 1992). pp. 217-222.

“Change and Bill Clinton,” article in Times Literary Supplement, November 13, 1992, ppp. 14-15.

“Political Parties and American Constitutionalism," in Peter W. Schramm and Bradford P. Wilson, eds., American Political Parties and Constitutional Politics, Rowman and Littlefield, 1992, pp. 1-16.

“Responsibility versus Self-Expression, “ in Robert A. Licht, ed., Old Rights and New, American Enterprise Institute Press, 1993, pp. 96-111.

"Returning to the Founders:  the debate on the Constitution," The New Criterion, Vol. 11 (September 1993), pp. 48-54.

"Human Rights in Emergencies," Critical Review, vol. 6 (1993), No. 4, pp. 575-585.

"Professional Education and the Examined Life:  Defining Terms," in Athanasios Moulakis, ed., Technology and Responsibility, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Boulder, Colorado, 1993, pp. 1-9.

"Responsibility and its Perversions," in W. Lawson Taite, ed., Individualism and Social Responsibility, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1994, pp. 79-99.

"The Unfinished Revolution," in Stephen F. Englehart and John Allphin Moore, Jr., eds., Three Beginnings:  Revolution, Rights, and the Liberal State.  New York:  Peter Lang, 1994.  pp. 9-30.  Reprinted in Ralph C. Hancock and L. Gary Lambert, eds., The Legacy of the French Revolution.  Lanham, Md.  Rowman & Littlefield, 1996.  pp. 19-41.

"Responsible Citizenship Ancient and Modern."  University of Oregon Press, 1994.  31 pp.  A pamphlet containing the 1994 Kritikos lecture.

"Democracy and Populism," in Robert S. Leiken, ed., A New Moment in the Americas.  New Brunswick, N. J.:  Transaction Publishers, 1995.  pp. 27-30.

"Self-Interest Rightly Understood," Political Theory, vol. 23 (1995), No. 1, pp. 48-66.

“Real Change in the USA,” Government and Opposition, vol. 30 (1995), pp. 35-47.

“The Twofold Meaning of Unum,” in Robert Royal, ed., Reinventing the American People.  Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans, 1995.  pp. 103-113.  French translation, "E pluribus unum:  la double signification du principe d'unité dans la devise des Etats-Unis," Esprits Libres, Politique et Culture, No. 1, Spring 2000, pp. 6-18.

“Passions et intérêts,” in Philippe Raynaud and Stéphane Rials, eds., Dictionnaire de Philosophie Politique.  Paris:  Presses Universitaires de France, 1996.  Pp. 453-457.

“The Election of 1996,” The American Enterprise, Jan-Feb. 1997, pp. 28-31.

“The Legacy of the Late Sixties,” in Stephen Macedo, ed., Reassessing the Sixties.  New York:  W. W. Norton, 1997.  Pp. 21-45.

“Some Doubts about Feminism,” Government and Opposition, Vol. 32 (1997), pp. 291-300.

“Virilité et libéralisme,” Archives de philosophie du droit, Vol. 41 (1997), pp. 25-42.

“The Partial Eclipse of Manliness,”  Times Literary Supplement,  July 17, 1998, pp. 14-15.

“Politiquement Correct,” Commentaire, Vol 21 (1998), No. 3, pp. 617-628.

“The Formal Constitution:  A Comment on Sotirios A. Barber,”  The American Journal of Jurisprudence, Vol. 42 (1997), 187-189.

“Liberalism and Big Government:  Tocqueville’s Analysis,” with Delba Winthrop; in Tyranny and Liberty (London:  Institute of United States Studies, 1999), 1-31.

"Translating Tocqueville's Democracy in America," with Delba Winthrop, The Tocqueville Review, Vol. 21 (2000), 153-164.

"Bruni and Machiavelli on Civic Humanism," in James Hankins, ed., Renaissance Civic Humanism.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 2000.  Pp. 223-246.

"The Cuckold in Machiavelli's Mandragola," in Vickie B. Sullivan, ed., The Comedy and Tragedy of Machiavelli; Essays on the Literary Works.  New Haven, Conn.:  Yale University Press, 2000.  Pp.  1-29.

“Majority Tyranny in Aristotle and Tocqueville,” in Peter Dennis Bathory and Nancy L. Schwartz eds., Friends and Citizens; Essays in Honor of Wilson Carey McWilliams.  Lanham, Md.:  Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.  Pp. 289-297.

“What Tocqueville Would Say Today,” with Delba Winthrop.  Hoover Digest, Summer 2001, No. 3.  Pp. 179-188.

“L’Education du Prince de Machiavel,” in Ran Halèvi, Le Savoir du Prince.  Paris:  Fayard, 2002.  Pp. 69-80.

“Political Correctness,” in Michael P. Foley and Douglas Kries, Gladly to Learn and Gladly to Teach; Essays on Religion and Political Philosophy in Honor of Ernest L. Fortin, A.A.  Lanham, Md.:  Lexington Books, 2002, 257-270.

“Liberty and Virtue in the American Founding.”  In Peter Berkowitz, ed., Never a Matter of Indifference; Sustaining Virtue in a Free Republic.  Stanford, Calif.:  Hoover Institution Press, 2003, 3-28.

“Nature and Fact in Tocqueville’s Democracy in America,” in Jean De Groot, Nature in American Philosophy.  Washington, D. C.:  The Catholic University of America, 2004, 109-128.

“Burke’s Conservatism.”  In Ian Crowe, ed., An Imaginative Whig; Reassessing the Life and Thought of Edmund Burke.  Columbia, Missouri:  University of Missouri Press, 2005, 59-70.

“Rational Control,”  The New Criterion, September 2006, Vol. 25, No. 1.  Pp. 39-44.

“Tocqueville’s New Political Science,” with Delba Winthrop, in Cheryl B. Welch, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Tocqueville.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 2006.  Pp. 81-107.

“The Case for the Strong Executive.”  Claremont Review of Books, Spring 2007.  Reprinted in the Wall Street Journal, 2 May 2007.

“A Plea for Constitutional Conservatism.”  In Charles W. Dunn, ed., The Future of Conservatism.  Wilmington, Del.:  ISI Books, 2007, 43-55.

 “How to Understand Politics; What the Humanities Can Say to Science.” 2007 Thomas Jefferson lecture sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities.  In First Things, August-September 2007, 41-47.